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Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

da Silva Medeiros N, Koslowsky Marder R, Farias Wohlenberg M, Funchal C, Dani C - Biochem Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates.In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates.We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Research Center, Centro Universitário Metodista IPA, 90420-060 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

No MeSH data available.


Levels of protein oxidation (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
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fig2: Levels of protein oxidation (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).

Mentions: For levels of protein oxidation, we observed that H2O2 in the cerebral cortex was not capable of inducing the oxidative damage (Figure 2(a)). Nevertheless, in hippocampus, H2O2 induced oxidative damage in protein, but milk, soy, and dark chocolates prevented the damage (Figure 2(b)). In cerebellum, H2O2 was able to cause increased levels of carbonyls when compared to the control. The milk, soy, and dark chocolates alone did not increase this parameter level. However, chocolate with H2O2 was not able to prevent oxidative damage to protein in this tissue (Figure 2(c)).


Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

da Silva Medeiros N, Koslowsky Marder R, Farias Wohlenberg M, Funchal C, Dani C - Biochem Res Int (2015)

Levels of protein oxidation (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663303&req=5

fig2: Levels of protein oxidation (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
Mentions: For levels of protein oxidation, we observed that H2O2 in the cerebral cortex was not capable of inducing the oxidative damage (Figure 2(a)). Nevertheless, in hippocampus, H2O2 induced oxidative damage in protein, but milk, soy, and dark chocolates prevented the damage (Figure 2(b)). In cerebellum, H2O2 was able to cause increased levels of carbonyls when compared to the control. The milk, soy, and dark chocolates alone did not increase this parameter level. However, chocolate with H2O2 was not able to prevent oxidative damage to protein in this tissue (Figure 2(c)).

Bottom Line: The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates.In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates.We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Research Center, Centro Universitário Metodista IPA, 90420-060 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

No MeSH data available.