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Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

da Silva Medeiros N, Koslowsky Marder R, Farias Wohlenberg M, Funchal C, Dani C - Biochem Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates.In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates.We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Research Center, Centro Universitário Metodista IPA, 90420-060 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

No MeSH data available.


Levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
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fig1: Levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).

Mentions: Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) increased in cerebral cortex in soy and dark chocolate, but this increase was lower than H2O2, p < 0.05 (Figure 1(a)). Hippocampus tissue also presented an increase in TBARS levels with the addition of H2O2 and this increase was prevented in all treatments with chocolate (p < 0.05). However, in the hippocampus when TBARS were evaluated, both chocolates, milk and soy, were able to increase these levels equaling to the value found on the tissue when H2O2 was added (Figure 1(b)). Lastly, in the cerebellum, no statistical difference was observed in this parameter (Figure 1(c)).


Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

da Silva Medeiros N, Koslowsky Marder R, Farias Wohlenberg M, Funchal C, Dani C - Biochem Res Int (2015)

Levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663303&req=5

fig1: Levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
Mentions: Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) increased in cerebral cortex in soy and dark chocolate, but this increase was lower than H2O2, p < 0.05 (Figure 1(a)). Hippocampus tissue also presented an increase in TBARS levels with the addition of H2O2 and this increase was prevented in all treatments with chocolate (p < 0.05). However, in the hippocampus when TBARS were evaluated, both chocolates, milk and soy, were able to increase these levels equaling to the value found on the tissue when H2O2 was added (Figure 1(b)). Lastly, in the cerebellum, no statistical difference was observed in this parameter (Figure 1(c)).

Bottom Line: The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates.In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates.We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Research Center, Centro Universitário Metodista IPA, 90420-060 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

No MeSH data available.