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Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The arteriovenous fistula of the rat arteriovenous malformation model. 1: fistula; 2: arterialized jugular vein; 3: nidus; CCA: common carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein.
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fig4: The arteriovenous fistula of the rat arteriovenous malformation model. 1: fistula; 2: arterialized jugular vein; 3: nidus; CCA: common carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein.

Mentions: In 2004, Yassari et al. described a rat model with the sham AVM nidus simply by ligating the left EJV at the confluence of the subclavian vein and making an end-to-side anastomosis of the EJV to the CCA [15]. These rats were observed up to 90 days. Angiographic and hemodynamic examinations showed that a high blood flow was diverted across fistula into the EJV (as the feeding artery), through a network of venous branches (as the nidus), then reconnected, and drained to the sigmoid sinus (as the draining vein), presenting a similar feature as in human AVMs (Figure 4). The high flow occurred immediately and kept stable after fistula formation, while the mean pressure in the fistula significantly dropped on day 7 and tended to stabilize by day 21.


Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

The arteriovenous fistula of the rat arteriovenous malformation model. 1: fistula; 2: arterialized jugular vein; 3: nidus; CCA: common carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663287&req=5

fig4: The arteriovenous fistula of the rat arteriovenous malformation model. 1: fistula; 2: arterialized jugular vein; 3: nidus; CCA: common carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein.
Mentions: In 2004, Yassari et al. described a rat model with the sham AVM nidus simply by ligating the left EJV at the confluence of the subclavian vein and making an end-to-side anastomosis of the EJV to the CCA [15]. These rats were observed up to 90 days. Angiographic and hemodynamic examinations showed that a high blood flow was diverted across fistula into the EJV (as the feeding artery), through a network of venous branches (as the nidus), then reconnected, and drained to the sigmoid sinus (as the draining vein), presenting a similar feature as in human AVMs (Figure 4). The high flow occurred immediately and kept stable after fistula formation, while the mean pressure in the fistula significantly dropped on day 7 and tended to stabilize by day 21.

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus