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Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anatomic basis and features of the sheep AVM model. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left side of the carotid artery through both retia mirabilia, retrograde to the right carotid artery and jugular vein following surgical creation of an anastomosis. CCA: common carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; EJV: external jugular vein.
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fig3: Anatomic basis and features of the sheep AVM model. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left side of the carotid artery through both retia mirabilia, retrograde to the right carotid artery and jugular vein following surgical creation of an anastomosis. CCA: common carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; EJV: external jugular vein.

Mentions: Besides, in the pig, the natural structure of carotid RM is also seen in the other artiodactyl animals such as the sheep, goat, ox, and cat, but not in the dog, rabbit, and rat. Whether the swine RM models can be duplicated in the other animals was unknown, except for a feasibility study in the sheep [14]. The vascular structure and blood supply of the RM in the sheep (the ascending pharyngeal artery is atrophy) slightly differ from those in the pig. A sheep AVM model was successfully created by a side-to-side surgical anastomosis between the CCA and the EJV with ligations of the vein above and the artery below the anastomosis (Figure 3). An angiographic appearance was demonstrated to simulate human AVMs in all the animal models. Creating the sheep model was rather simple and cost-effective, but it was not routinely adopted in AVM study.


Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Anatomic basis and features of the sheep AVM model. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left side of the carotid artery through both retia mirabilia, retrograde to the right carotid artery and jugular vein following surgical creation of an anastomosis. CCA: common carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; EJV: external jugular vein.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663287&req=5

fig3: Anatomic basis and features of the sheep AVM model. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left side of the carotid artery through both retia mirabilia, retrograde to the right carotid artery and jugular vein following surgical creation of an anastomosis. CCA: common carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; EJV: external jugular vein.
Mentions: Besides, in the pig, the natural structure of carotid RM is also seen in the other artiodactyl animals such as the sheep, goat, ox, and cat, but not in the dog, rabbit, and rat. Whether the swine RM models can be duplicated in the other animals was unknown, except for a feasibility study in the sheep [14]. The vascular structure and blood supply of the RM in the sheep (the ascending pharyngeal artery is atrophy) slightly differ from those in the pig. A sheep AVM model was successfully created by a side-to-side surgical anastomosis between the CCA and the EJV with ligations of the vein above and the artery below the anastomosis (Figure 3). An angiographic appearance was demonstrated to simulate human AVMs in all the animal models. Creating the sheep model was rather simple and cost-effective, but it was not routinely adopted in AVM study.

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus