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Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anatomic basis and features of the swine AVM model. (a) Schematic representation of the normal left carotid arterial anatomy of the swine. The carotid rete mirabile is situated at the termination of the APA. ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; CCA: common carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; MMA: middle meningeal artery supplying the ramus anastomoticus; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; APA: ascending pharyngeal artery; OA: occipital artery; BA: basilar artery; CW: circle of Willis; EJV: external jugular vein. (b) Schematic representation of the AVM model after creation of a right carotid-jugular fistula. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left CCA to both retia mirabilia via the three feeding arteries (the left APA, RA, and AA), and retrograde down the right APA toward the right carotid-jugular fistula. Note balloon occlusion of the right ECA.
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fig2: Anatomic basis and features of the swine AVM model. (a) Schematic representation of the normal left carotid arterial anatomy of the swine. The carotid rete mirabile is situated at the termination of the APA. ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; CCA: common carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; MMA: middle meningeal artery supplying the ramus anastomoticus; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; APA: ascending pharyngeal artery; OA: occipital artery; BA: basilar artery; CW: circle of Willis; EJV: external jugular vein. (b) Schematic representation of the AVM model after creation of a right carotid-jugular fistula. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left CCA to both retia mirabilia via the three feeding arteries (the left APA, RA, and AA), and retrograde down the right APA toward the right carotid-jugular fistula. Note balloon occlusion of the right ECA.

Mentions: The carotid rete mirabile (RM) of the swine is a special vascular structure with a tangle of microarteries and arterioles situated at the termination of each ascending pharyngeal artery (APA) as it perforates the cranial base. The two sides of the RM, which are connected with each other across the midline, are also supplied by other small collateral arteries and effuse to form internal carotid arteries ipsilaterally (Figure 2(a)). At the end of 1980s, several authors began to report that the swine RM could be used as the AVM nidus to evaluate different materials for embolization and the single-dose radiation effects, due to their morphological similarities [47–50]. The occlusive effect of the treatments could be evaluated by superselective angiography and histopathological observation. An important distinction between the RM structure and a real AVM nidus is the hemodynamic difference; the former is arterioarterial system, but the latter is an arteriovenous system with a higher pressure gradient between feeding and draining vessels.


Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Anatomic basis and features of the swine AVM model. (a) Schematic representation of the normal left carotid arterial anatomy of the swine. The carotid rete mirabile is situated at the termination of the APA. ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; CCA: common carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; MMA: middle meningeal artery supplying the ramus anastomoticus; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; APA: ascending pharyngeal artery; OA: occipital artery; BA: basilar artery; CW: circle of Willis; EJV: external jugular vein. (b) Schematic representation of the AVM model after creation of a right carotid-jugular fistula. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left CCA to both retia mirabilia via the three feeding arteries (the left APA, RA, and AA), and retrograde down the right APA toward the right carotid-jugular fistula. Note balloon occlusion of the right ECA.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig2: Anatomic basis and features of the swine AVM model. (a) Schematic representation of the normal left carotid arterial anatomy of the swine. The carotid rete mirabile is situated at the termination of the APA. ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; CCA: common carotid artery; IMA: internal maxillary artery; MMA: middle meningeal artery supplying the ramus anastomoticus; RA: ramus anastomoticus; AA: arteria anastomotica; APA: ascending pharyngeal artery; OA: occipital artery; BA: basilar artery; CW: circle of Willis; EJV: external jugular vein. (b) Schematic representation of the AVM model after creation of a right carotid-jugular fistula. Arrows indicate direction of flow, that is, from the left CCA to both retia mirabilia via the three feeding arteries (the left APA, RA, and AA), and retrograde down the right APA toward the right carotid-jugular fistula. Note balloon occlusion of the right ECA.
Mentions: The carotid rete mirabile (RM) of the swine is a special vascular structure with a tangle of microarteries and arterioles situated at the termination of each ascending pharyngeal artery (APA) as it perforates the cranial base. The two sides of the RM, which are connected with each other across the midline, are also supplied by other small collateral arteries and effuse to form internal carotid arteries ipsilaterally (Figure 2(a)). At the end of 1980s, several authors began to report that the swine RM could be used as the AVM nidus to evaluate different materials for embolization and the single-dose radiation effects, due to their morphological similarities [47–50]. The occlusive effect of the treatments could be evaluated by superselective angiography and histopathological observation. An important distinction between the RM structure and a real AVM nidus is the hemodynamic difference; the former is arterioarterial system, but the latter is an arteriovenous system with a higher pressure gradient between feeding and draining vessels.

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus