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Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Animal models with carotid-jugular fistulae. (a) Spetzler's model, (b) Morgan's model, and (c) Hai's model. CCA: common carotid artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein; IJV: internal jugular vein.
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fig1: Animal models with carotid-jugular fistulae. (a) Spetzler's model, (b) Morgan's model, and (c) Hai's model. CCA: common carotid artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein; IJV: internal jugular vein.

Mentions: To explain a phenomenon that brain tissue surrounding the AVM lesion is subject to swelling and hemorrhage immediately following surgical excision of the lesion, Spetzler et al. firstly suggested that the chronic ischemic brain tissue near high flow AVMs might experience a loss of vascular autoregulatory capacity, the theory of normal perfusion pressure breakthrough (NPPB), by using carotid-jugular fistula (CJF) model in cats [6]. This model was created by means of an anastomosis between the rostral end of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the caudal end of the external jugular vein (EJV) together with the ligation of the remaining vessel stumps, so that noninfarction cerebral hypoperfusion was achieved by draining the blood from the circle of Willis retrogradely through the anastomosis (Figure 1(a)). After 6 weeks, only the animals with marked dilatation of the fistula vessels exhibited diminished cerebrovascular autoregulation with both open and closed fistulae, indicating the detrimental effect of high flow through AVMs on surrounding tissues. The other investigators reevaluated this cat model but found that the cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes were actually minimal and transient by the CJF formation and systematic blood pressure interference, and CO2 reactivity in the closed fistula was preserved. This model was probably not enough to clarify the mechanisms of the NPPB phenomenon [36–38].


Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Xu M, Xu H, Qin Z - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Animal models with carotid-jugular fistulae. (a) Spetzler's model, (b) Morgan's model, and (c) Hai's model. CCA: common carotid artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein; IJV: internal jugular vein.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663287&req=5

fig1: Animal models with carotid-jugular fistulae. (a) Spetzler's model, (b) Morgan's model, and (c) Hai's model. CCA: common carotid artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; EJV: external jugular vein; IJV: internal jugular vein.
Mentions: To explain a phenomenon that brain tissue surrounding the AVM lesion is subject to swelling and hemorrhage immediately following surgical excision of the lesion, Spetzler et al. firstly suggested that the chronic ischemic brain tissue near high flow AVMs might experience a loss of vascular autoregulatory capacity, the theory of normal perfusion pressure breakthrough (NPPB), by using carotid-jugular fistula (CJF) model in cats [6]. This model was created by means of an anastomosis between the rostral end of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the caudal end of the external jugular vein (EJV) together with the ligation of the remaining vessel stumps, so that noninfarction cerebral hypoperfusion was achieved by draining the blood from the circle of Willis retrogradely through the anastomosis (Figure 1(a)). After 6 weeks, only the animals with marked dilatation of the fistula vessels exhibited diminished cerebrovascular autoregulation with both open and closed fistulae, indicating the detrimental effect of high flow through AVMs on surrounding tissues. The other investigators reevaluated this cat model but found that the cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes were actually minimal and transient by the CJF formation and systematic blood pressure interference, and CO2 reactivity in the closed fistula was preserved. This model was probably not enough to clarify the mechanisms of the NPPB phenomenon [36–38].

Bottom Line: A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease.The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated.Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

ABSTRACT
Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus