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Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter.

de Sousa MB, Galvão AC, Sales CJ, de Castro DC, Galvão-Coelho NL - Front Psychiatry (2015)

Bottom Line: This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels.Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups.Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Brain Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte , Natal , Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species.

No MeSH data available.


Mean (±SE) of fecal cortisol levels (ng/g) in Callithrix jacchus in the Experiment II (Bp = baseline phase; Ip1 = initial isolation phase; Ip2 = late isolation phase; and Rp = reunion phase) at (A) 6 months, (B) 9 months, and (C) 12 months of age. A multivariate ANOVA test for repeated measures was performed with the Fisher posttest, p < 0.05. The symbol “*” indicates significant statistical differences and “#” a statistical tendency to differences in cortisol levels between the respective study phase and phases represented beside the symbol. The letters “f” and “m” indicate females and males, respectively.
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Figure 4: Mean (±SE) of fecal cortisol levels (ng/g) in Callithrix jacchus in the Experiment II (Bp = baseline phase; Ip1 = initial isolation phase; Ip2 = late isolation phase; and Rp = reunion phase) at (A) 6 months, (B) 9 months, and (C) 12 months of age. A multivariate ANOVA test for repeated measures was performed with the Fisher posttest, p < 0.05. The symbol “*” indicates significant statistical differences and “#” a statistical tendency to differences in cortisol levels between the respective study phase and phases represented beside the symbol. The letters “f” and “m” indicate females and males, respectively.

Mentions: In Experiment II, we used immature animals at juvenile I (n = 8/4 males), juvenile II (n = 10/5 males), and subadult (n = 10/4 males) development stages living in their FGs, isolated in cages and reunited with their family. A significant interaction among sex, age, and phases was found (ANOVA; Sex × Ages × Phases: F = 2.20, p = 0.04) as shown in Figure 4.


Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter.

de Sousa MB, Galvão AC, Sales CJ, de Castro DC, Galvão-Coelho NL - Front Psychiatry (2015)

Mean (±SE) of fecal cortisol levels (ng/g) in Callithrix jacchus in the Experiment II (Bp = baseline phase; Ip1 = initial isolation phase; Ip2 = late isolation phase; and Rp = reunion phase) at (A) 6 months, (B) 9 months, and (C) 12 months of age. A multivariate ANOVA test for repeated measures was performed with the Fisher posttest, p < 0.05. The symbol “*” indicates significant statistical differences and “#” a statistical tendency to differences in cortisol levels between the respective study phase and phases represented beside the symbol. The letters “f” and “m” indicate females and males, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663272&req=5

Figure 4: Mean (±SE) of fecal cortisol levels (ng/g) in Callithrix jacchus in the Experiment II (Bp = baseline phase; Ip1 = initial isolation phase; Ip2 = late isolation phase; and Rp = reunion phase) at (A) 6 months, (B) 9 months, and (C) 12 months of age. A multivariate ANOVA test for repeated measures was performed with the Fisher posttest, p < 0.05. The symbol “*” indicates significant statistical differences and “#” a statistical tendency to differences in cortisol levels between the respective study phase and phases represented beside the symbol. The letters “f” and “m” indicate females and males, respectively.
Mentions: In Experiment II, we used immature animals at juvenile I (n = 8/4 males), juvenile II (n = 10/5 males), and subadult (n = 10/4 males) development stages living in their FGs, isolated in cages and reunited with their family. A significant interaction among sex, age, and phases was found (ANOVA; Sex × Ages × Phases: F = 2.20, p = 0.04) as shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels.Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups.Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Brain Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte , Natal , Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species.

No MeSH data available.