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The Effect of Affective Context on Visuocortical Processing of Neutral Faces in Social Anxiety.

Wieser MJ, Moscovitch DA - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions.Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts.Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg Würzburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive). Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23) and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21) were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance). Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP) indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias), whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias). Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of the LPP component averaged across medial-central sensor cluster for the three contextual conditions per group. (A) Enhanced LPP amplitudes were observed for positively contextualized compared to neutrally contextualized faces in LSA, but for negatively contextualized faces in HSA. (B) Scalp potential maps of the difference waves “negative-neutral” and “positive-neutral” for the LPP component are given on a top view of the model head.
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Figure 5: Illustration of the LPP component averaged across medial-central sensor cluster for the three contextual conditions per group. (A) Enhanced LPP amplitudes were observed for positively contextualized compared to neutrally contextualized faces in LSA, but for negatively contextualized faces in HSA. (B) Scalp potential maps of the difference waves “negative-neutral” and “positive-neutral” for the LPP component are given on a top view of the model head.

Mentions: The waveform analyses revealed highly significant modulations of the LPP as a function of contextual valence and group, F(2, 84) = 3.32, p = 0.041, (see Figure 5). Post-hoc simple t-tests performed for each group revealed that in LSA, faces in positive contexts elicited enhanced LPP amplitudes compared to faces put in negative or neutral contexts, t(22) = 2.53, p = 0.019, and t(22) = 2.53, p = 0.019. As expected, in HSA faces in negative contexts elicited larger LPP amplitudes compared to faces in neutral contexts, t(20) = 2.12, p = 0.046 (Figure 5).


The Effect of Affective Context on Visuocortical Processing of Neutral Faces in Social Anxiety.

Wieser MJ, Moscovitch DA - Front Psychol (2015)

Illustration of the LPP component averaged across medial-central sensor cluster for the three contextual conditions per group. (A) Enhanced LPP amplitudes were observed for positively contextualized compared to neutrally contextualized faces in LSA, but for negatively contextualized faces in HSA. (B) Scalp potential maps of the difference waves “negative-neutral” and “positive-neutral” for the LPP component are given on a top view of the model head.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663271&req=5

Figure 5: Illustration of the LPP component averaged across medial-central sensor cluster for the three contextual conditions per group. (A) Enhanced LPP amplitudes were observed for positively contextualized compared to neutrally contextualized faces in LSA, but for negatively contextualized faces in HSA. (B) Scalp potential maps of the difference waves “negative-neutral” and “positive-neutral” for the LPP component are given on a top view of the model head.
Mentions: The waveform analyses revealed highly significant modulations of the LPP as a function of contextual valence and group, F(2, 84) = 3.32, p = 0.041, (see Figure 5). Post-hoc simple t-tests performed for each group revealed that in LSA, faces in positive contexts elicited enhanced LPP amplitudes compared to faces put in negative or neutral contexts, t(22) = 2.53, p = 0.019, and t(22) = 2.53, p = 0.019. As expected, in HSA faces in negative contexts elicited larger LPP amplitudes compared to faces in neutral contexts, t(20) = 2.12, p = 0.046 (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions.Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts.Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg Würzburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive). Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23) and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21) were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance). Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP) indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias), whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias). Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus