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Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

Setati ME, Jacobson D, Bauer FF - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards.The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards.Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Stellenbosch University Stellenbosch, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of fungal species recovered across the orders of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Zygomycetes.
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Figure 2: Distribution of fungal species recovered across the orders of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Zygomycetes.

Mentions: Taxonomic assignment was performed using the MG-RAST pipeline. The data indicated some overall similarities in the species composition, but also significant differences. The Ascomycota was found to be the predominant phylum represented in all three grape mycobiomes, but their total contribution varied significantly between 79 and 98% of the total fungal population. In contrast, the Basidiomycota which is commonly the dominant phylum on unripe berries only accounted for 0.4% of the population in the BD vineyard, while in the CONV and IPW vineyard it represented 3.4 and 2%, respectively. In contrast, the BD grape must displayed a high incidence of fungi from the phylum Zygomycota (20%) while in the CONV and IPW vineyard this phylum represented less than 0.1% of the fungal population. Further analysis shows that fungi of the order Dothidiales were dominant across the three libraries. The Saccharomycetales were also present in high levels in the BD and CONV libraries, while the Botryosphaeriales were the second most dominant in the IPW library (Figure 2). In addition, in the BD must sample the Mucorales were present at the same level as the Saccharomycetales accounting for 20% of the taxa. Dominant ascomycetous filamentous fungi included members of the genera Alternaria, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Davidiella, Kabatiella, Neofussicoccum, Pleospora, and the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans, while Rhodosporidium sp., Sporobolomyces sp. and Rhodotorula sp. where the predominant basidiomycetous fungi. Twenty nine fungal species were common across the three vineyards (Figure 3). There were evidently more species shared between the BD and IPW vineyard, than between the BD and CONV, or CONV and IPW.


Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

Setati ME, Jacobson D, Bauer FF - Front Microbiol (2015)

Distribution of fungal species recovered across the orders of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Zygomycetes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663253&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of fungal species recovered across the orders of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Zygomycetes.
Mentions: Taxonomic assignment was performed using the MG-RAST pipeline. The data indicated some overall similarities in the species composition, but also significant differences. The Ascomycota was found to be the predominant phylum represented in all three grape mycobiomes, but their total contribution varied significantly between 79 and 98% of the total fungal population. In contrast, the Basidiomycota which is commonly the dominant phylum on unripe berries only accounted for 0.4% of the population in the BD vineyard, while in the CONV and IPW vineyard it represented 3.4 and 2%, respectively. In contrast, the BD grape must displayed a high incidence of fungi from the phylum Zygomycota (20%) while in the CONV and IPW vineyard this phylum represented less than 0.1% of the fungal population. Further analysis shows that fungi of the order Dothidiales were dominant across the three libraries. The Saccharomycetales were also present in high levels in the BD and CONV libraries, while the Botryosphaeriales were the second most dominant in the IPW library (Figure 2). In addition, in the BD must sample the Mucorales were present at the same level as the Saccharomycetales accounting for 20% of the taxa. Dominant ascomycetous filamentous fungi included members of the genera Alternaria, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Davidiella, Kabatiella, Neofussicoccum, Pleospora, and the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans, while Rhodosporidium sp., Sporobolomyces sp. and Rhodotorula sp. where the predominant basidiomycetous fungi. Twenty nine fungal species were common across the three vineyards (Figure 3). There were evidently more species shared between the BD and IPW vineyard, than between the BD and CONV, or CONV and IPW.

Bottom Line: Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards.The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards.Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Stellenbosch University Stellenbosch, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus