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Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges.

Hench LL, Jones JR - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues.This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass(®).The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida Institute of Technology , Melbourne, FL , USA.

ABSTRACT
Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass(®). The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

X-ray microtomography images of bioactive glass scaffolds (A) sol–gel foam and (B) melt-derived gel-cast foam. Modified with permission from Jones (2013).
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Figure 3: X-ray microtomography images of bioactive glass scaffolds (A) sol–gel foam and (B) melt-derived gel-cast foam. Modified with permission from Jones (2013).

Mentions: Particles and putties containing a variety of bioactive glass particulates are in widespread clinical use, but surgeons sometimes require large interconnected macroporous scaffolds for regeneration of large bone defects. The porous architecture can guide bone regeneration, acting as temporary templates for tissue growth while allowing space for vascularization. At present, there are no large-scale porous bioactive glasses on the market. The reason is that it took until 2002 for the first porous bioactive glass scaffold with suitable pores to be developed (Sepulveda et al., 2002). This is because the original Bioglass 45S5 crystallizes as the particles are sintered together (Chen et al., 2006). Initially, this was overcome by avoiding sintering through the bottom-up sol–gel process, where gelation of nanoparticles in a sol (polycondensation) forms a glass network (Li et al., 1991). The room temperature gelation process allowed the introduction of a foaming step, with the aim of a surfactant, to produce interconnected pores with compression strength equivalent to porous bone (Jones et al., 2006). An X-ray microtomography image of a bioactive glass sol–gel foam scaffold is shown in Figure 3A.


Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges.

Hench LL, Jones JR - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

X-ray microtomography images of bioactive glass scaffolds (A) sol–gel foam and (B) melt-derived gel-cast foam. Modified with permission from Jones (2013).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663244&req=5

Figure 3: X-ray microtomography images of bioactive glass scaffolds (A) sol–gel foam and (B) melt-derived gel-cast foam. Modified with permission from Jones (2013).
Mentions: Particles and putties containing a variety of bioactive glass particulates are in widespread clinical use, but surgeons sometimes require large interconnected macroporous scaffolds for regeneration of large bone defects. The porous architecture can guide bone regeneration, acting as temporary templates for tissue growth while allowing space for vascularization. At present, there are no large-scale porous bioactive glasses on the market. The reason is that it took until 2002 for the first porous bioactive glass scaffold with suitable pores to be developed (Sepulveda et al., 2002). This is because the original Bioglass 45S5 crystallizes as the particles are sintered together (Chen et al., 2006). Initially, this was overcome by avoiding sintering through the bottom-up sol–gel process, where gelation of nanoparticles in a sol (polycondensation) forms a glass network (Li et al., 1991). The room temperature gelation process allowed the introduction of a foaming step, with the aim of a surfactant, to produce interconnected pores with compression strength equivalent to porous bone (Jones et al., 2006). An X-ray microtomography image of a bioactive glass sol–gel foam scaffold is shown in Figure 3A.

Bottom Line: Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues.This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass(®).The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida Institute of Technology , Melbourne, FL , USA.

ABSTRACT
Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass(®). The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus