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Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

Saldaña A, Calzada JE, Pineda V, Perea M, Rigg C, González K, Santamaria AM, Gottdenker NL, Chaves LF - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2015)

Bottom Line: All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm.Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents.Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de Salud, Ciudad de Panamá, República de Panamá

ABSTRACT
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

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royal palms and Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive dogs; B:study houses indicating whether their peridomicile (area within a 50 m radiuscircumference around the house) or that of the two closest neighbouring houseshad the royal palm Attalea butyracea. Number of T.cruzi seropositive dogs (based on positive diagnosis from at least2 tests) and all dogs per household in this panel symbol size in the insetlegend corresponds to one individual. CN: in the peridomicile of the twoclosest neighbouring houses; H: in the house peridomicile.
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f01: royal palms and Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive dogs; B:study houses indicating whether their peridomicile (area within a 50 m radiuscircumference around the house) or that of the two closest neighbouring houseshad the royal palm Attalea butyracea. Number of T.cruzi seropositive dogs (based on positive diagnosis from at least2 tests) and all dogs per household in this panel symbol size in the insetlegend corresponds to one individual. CN: in the peridomicile of the twoclosest neighbouring houses; H: in the house peridomicile.

Mentions: The 24 houses we surveyed (Fig. 1A) had 52 dogs,but we collected information and samples from 51, since one of the dogs was less thanone month old and still weaning. All dogs were mixed breeds. The average (± SD) age ofthe dogs was 3.07 ± 2.94 years, 17 were females and 34 males. Most dogs (94%) hadectoparasites (ticks and/or fleas) attached to their skin, 43% had a poor physicalcondition and 7% slept inside the houses. Regarding T. cruzi infection,eight dogs were seropositive according to the rapid test, 10 by the modified ELISA and10 by homemade IFAT. Nine dogs were considered seropositive by the composite goldstandard (seropositivity in 2 or more tests), representing a seroprevalence of 17.6%(Fig. 1B). The spatial location of householdswhere seropositive dogs were diagnosed by each test is depicted in Fig. 2. The sensitivity and specificity of the differentserological tests are shown inTable I. The mostsensitive and specific test was the Rapid test, followed by the IFAT and the modifiedELISA. The inter-agreement between all diagnostic tests (Table II) was substantial according to the scale by Landis and Koch (1977) and between the paired tests, with theexception of the Rapid test - IFAT pair (TableII), whose value above 0.8 can be interpreted as an almost perfect agreement onT. cruzi serodiagnosis (Landis &Koch 1977). Thus, in general, it can be affirmed that the diagnostic testswere in agreement on positive and negative diagnostics. None of the blood cultures werepositive for hemoflagellates after two months of microscopic observation.


Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

Saldaña A, Calzada JE, Pineda V, Perea M, Rigg C, González K, Santamaria AM, Gottdenker NL, Chaves LF - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2015)

royal palms and Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive dogs; B:study houses indicating whether their peridomicile (area within a 50 m radiuscircumference around the house) or that of the two closest neighbouring houseshad the royal palm Attalea butyracea. Number of T.cruzi seropositive dogs (based on positive diagnosis from at least2 tests) and all dogs per household in this panel symbol size in the insetlegend corresponds to one individual. CN: in the peridomicile of the twoclosest neighbouring houses; H: in the house peridomicile.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4660624&req=5

f01: royal palms and Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive dogs; B:study houses indicating whether their peridomicile (area within a 50 m radiuscircumference around the house) or that of the two closest neighbouring houseshad the royal palm Attalea butyracea. Number of T.cruzi seropositive dogs (based on positive diagnosis from at least2 tests) and all dogs per household in this panel symbol size in the insetlegend corresponds to one individual. CN: in the peridomicile of the twoclosest neighbouring houses; H: in the house peridomicile.
Mentions: The 24 houses we surveyed (Fig. 1A) had 52 dogs,but we collected information and samples from 51, since one of the dogs was less thanone month old and still weaning. All dogs were mixed breeds. The average (± SD) age ofthe dogs was 3.07 ± 2.94 years, 17 were females and 34 males. Most dogs (94%) hadectoparasites (ticks and/or fleas) attached to their skin, 43% had a poor physicalcondition and 7% slept inside the houses. Regarding T. cruzi infection,eight dogs were seropositive according to the rapid test, 10 by the modified ELISA and10 by homemade IFAT. Nine dogs were considered seropositive by the composite goldstandard (seropositivity in 2 or more tests), representing a seroprevalence of 17.6%(Fig. 1B). The spatial location of householdswhere seropositive dogs were diagnosed by each test is depicted in Fig. 2. The sensitivity and specificity of the differentserological tests are shown inTable I. The mostsensitive and specific test was the Rapid test, followed by the IFAT and the modifiedELISA. The inter-agreement between all diagnostic tests (Table II) was substantial according to the scale by Landis and Koch (1977) and between the paired tests, with theexception of the Rapid test - IFAT pair (TableII), whose value above 0.8 can be interpreted as an almost perfect agreement onT. cruzi serodiagnosis (Landis &Koch 1977). Thus, in general, it can be affirmed that the diagnostic testswere in agreement on positive and negative diagnostics. None of the blood cultures werepositive for hemoflagellates after two months of microscopic observation.

Bottom Line: All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm.Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents.Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de Salud, Ciudad de Panamá, República de Panamá

ABSTRACT
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus