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Decreased Diversity of the Oral Microbiota of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Project.

Ling Z, Liu X, Cheng Y, Jiang X, Jiang H, Wang Y, Li L - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD.However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003, China.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBV-CLD). However, the structure and composition of the oral microbiota of patients with HBV-CLD remains unclear. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly, which indicated that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota participated in the process of HBV-CLD development. However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor. These key oral-derived phylotypes might invade into the gut as opportunistic pathogens and contribute to altering the composition of the gut microbiota. This study provided important clues that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota might be involved in the development of HBV-CLD. Greater understanding of the relationships between the dysbiosis of oral microbiota and the development of HBV-CLD might facilitate the development of non-invasive differential diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments of HBV-CLD patients harbouring specific oral phylotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Heatmap indicating the genus-level changes in the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.The legends below the heatmap represent each participant. The relative abundance of the bacteria in each genus is indicated by a gradient of colour from green (low abundance) to red (high abundance). Complete linkage clustering of the samples was based on the genus-level composition and abundance of the oral microbiota. Three distinctive clusters were found in the oral microbiota, which was significantly associated with the Shannon index value.
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f2: Heatmap indicating the genus-level changes in the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.The legends below the heatmap represent each participant. The relative abundance of the bacteria in each genus is indicated by a gradient of colour from green (low abundance) to red (high abundance). Complete linkage clustering of the samples was based on the genus-level composition and abundance of the oral microbiota. Three distinctive clusters were found in the oral microbiota, which was significantly associated with the Shannon index value.

Mentions: The taxonomy of the oral microbiota was assessed via a taxon-dependent analysis using the RDP classifier. The vast majority of the sequences were assigned to six bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes), whereas sequences of representatives of Acidobacteria, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, Elusimicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Latescibacteria, Parcubacteria, Planctomycetes, Synergistetes, Tenericutes and one candidate division (SR1) were also identified but occurred in much lower proportions. Significant differences were observed in the relative proportions of members of the four major phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Spirochaetes) and the four non-dominant phyla (Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Chloroflexi, Tenericutes and SR1) in the healthy-control and HBV-CLD samples. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios of the healthy control and HBV-CLD samples were significantly different (0.5143 ± 0.1980 vs. 1.4293 ± 0.8897, p < 0.05). The sequences obtained from the oral microbiota samples could be classified into 248 genera, with members of 104 genera found in the healthy-control samples, members of 167 genera found in the CHB-patient samples and members of 211 genera found in the LC-patient samples. Consistent with our rank abundance curves and based on the data obtained using a greater sequencing depth, members of the majority of the genera were present in low abundance in the oral microbiota samples. Of the total number of genera represented in the oral microbiota, members of 14 abundantly represented genera (>1% of the total DNA sequences) were detected in the healthy-control samples, whereas members of 16 and 18 abundantly represented genera were detected in the CHB- and LC-patient samples, respectively. The heatmap showed the correlations between the participants and the abundance levels of selected genera that were represented in the microbiota samples (Fig. 2). Consistent with the values for the alpha-diversity indices such as the Shannon index and those for the beta-diversity metrics such as PCoA, clustering analysis of the represented genera highlighted apparent differences in their distributions according to the health status of the host. It was obvious that an aberrant composition of the oral microbiota was associated with HBV-CLD.


Decreased Diversity of the Oral Microbiota of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Project.

Ling Z, Liu X, Cheng Y, Jiang X, Jiang H, Wang Y, Li L - Sci Rep (2015)

Heatmap indicating the genus-level changes in the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.The legends below the heatmap represent each participant. The relative abundance of the bacteria in each genus is indicated by a gradient of colour from green (low abundance) to red (high abundance). Complete linkage clustering of the samples was based on the genus-level composition and abundance of the oral microbiota. Three distinctive clusters were found in the oral microbiota, which was significantly associated with the Shannon index value.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4660595&req=5

f2: Heatmap indicating the genus-level changes in the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.The legends below the heatmap represent each participant. The relative abundance of the bacteria in each genus is indicated by a gradient of colour from green (low abundance) to red (high abundance). Complete linkage clustering of the samples was based on the genus-level composition and abundance of the oral microbiota. Three distinctive clusters were found in the oral microbiota, which was significantly associated with the Shannon index value.
Mentions: The taxonomy of the oral microbiota was assessed via a taxon-dependent analysis using the RDP classifier. The vast majority of the sequences were assigned to six bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes), whereas sequences of representatives of Acidobacteria, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, Elusimicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Latescibacteria, Parcubacteria, Planctomycetes, Synergistetes, Tenericutes and one candidate division (SR1) were also identified but occurred in much lower proportions. Significant differences were observed in the relative proportions of members of the four major phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Spirochaetes) and the four non-dominant phyla (Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Chloroflexi, Tenericutes and SR1) in the healthy-control and HBV-CLD samples. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios of the healthy control and HBV-CLD samples were significantly different (0.5143 ± 0.1980 vs. 1.4293 ± 0.8897, p < 0.05). The sequences obtained from the oral microbiota samples could be classified into 248 genera, with members of 104 genera found in the healthy-control samples, members of 167 genera found in the CHB-patient samples and members of 211 genera found in the LC-patient samples. Consistent with our rank abundance curves and based on the data obtained using a greater sequencing depth, members of the majority of the genera were present in low abundance in the oral microbiota samples. Of the total number of genera represented in the oral microbiota, members of 14 abundantly represented genera (>1% of the total DNA sequences) were detected in the healthy-control samples, whereas members of 16 and 18 abundantly represented genera were detected in the CHB- and LC-patient samples, respectively. The heatmap showed the correlations between the participants and the abundance levels of selected genera that were represented in the microbiota samples (Fig. 2). Consistent with the values for the alpha-diversity indices such as the Shannon index and those for the beta-diversity metrics such as PCoA, clustering analysis of the represented genera highlighted apparent differences in their distributions according to the health status of the host. It was obvious that an aberrant composition of the oral microbiota was associated with HBV-CLD.

Bottom Line: High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD.However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003, China.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBV-CLD). However, the structure and composition of the oral microbiota of patients with HBV-CLD remains unclear. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly, which indicated that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota participated in the process of HBV-CLD development. However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor. These key oral-derived phylotypes might invade into the gut as opportunistic pathogens and contribute to altering the composition of the gut microbiota. This study provided important clues that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota might be involved in the development of HBV-CLD. Greater understanding of the relationships between the dysbiosis of oral microbiota and the development of HBV-CLD might facilitate the development of non-invasive differential diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments of HBV-CLD patients harbouring specific oral phylotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus