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Decreased Diversity of the Oral Microbiota of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Project.

Ling Z, Liu X, Cheng Y, Jiang X, Jiang H, Wang Y, Li L - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD.However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003, China.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBV-CLD). However, the structure and composition of the oral microbiota of patients with HBV-CLD remains unclear. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly, which indicated that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota participated in the process of HBV-CLD development. However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor. These key oral-derived phylotypes might invade into the gut as opportunistic pathogens and contribute to altering the composition of the gut microbiota. This study provided important clues that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota might be involved in the development of HBV-CLD. Greater understanding of the relationships between the dysbiosis of oral microbiota and the development of HBV-CLD might facilitate the development of non-invasive differential diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments of HBV-CLD patients harbouring specific oral phylotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of the structures of the oral microbiota of the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.Shannon (A) and Simpson (B) indices were used to estimate the level of diversity (i.e., a combined assessment of the number of 97% similar bacterial taxa and their abundance) of the oral microbiota of children (data shown as the mean values and the SEM). Rarefaction curves were used to estimate the richness (at a 97% similarity level) of the oral microbiota of the three groups (C). The vertical axis shows the number of OTUs that expected to be found after sampling the number of tags or sequences shown on the horizontal axis. Rank abundance curve of the bacterial OTUs derived from the three groups (D). Venn diagram illustrating the overlap of the OTUs identified in the oral microbiota of the three groups (E). A principal-coordinate analysis plot of the oral microbiota based on the results of the unweighted UniFrac metric (F).
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f1: Comparison of the structures of the oral microbiota of the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.Shannon (A) and Simpson (B) indices were used to estimate the level of diversity (i.e., a combined assessment of the number of 97% similar bacterial taxa and their abundance) of the oral microbiota of children (data shown as the mean values and the SEM). Rarefaction curves were used to estimate the richness (at a 97% similarity level) of the oral microbiota of the three groups (C). The vertical axis shows the number of OTUs that expected to be found after sampling the number of tags or sequences shown on the horizontal axis. Rank abundance curve of the bacterial OTUs derived from the three groups (D). Venn diagram illustrating the overlap of the OTUs identified in the oral microbiota of the three groups (E). A principal-coordinate analysis plot of the oral microbiota based on the results of the unweighted UniFrac metric (F).

Mentions: In our present pyrosequencing study, 612,922 raw sequences with a median read length of 467 base pairs (ranging from 201 to 540) were obtained. After quality trimming and chimera checking was conducted, 430,753 high-quality reads remained, accounting for 70.3% of the valid reads with an average of 14,358 reads (ranging from 7,266 to 20,529) per barcoded sample recovered for downstream analysis. The summary information is shown in Table 1, and the detailed characteristics of each sample are shown in Table S1. In total, 8,672 unique sequences were obtained from the three groups, representing all of the phylotypes present in the oral microbiota. The Good’s coverage values were high for all of the sequences in the three groups, indicating that the sequencing depth was sufficient for the investigation of the oral microbiota of HBV-CLD patients. Indicators of the alpha diversity, such as the Shannon and the Simpson indices, demonstrated that the level of diversity of the oral microbiota of the HBV-CLD patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy controls (p < 0.01, Fig. 1A,B). However, the diversity indices of the CHB and LC patients were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Rarefaction analysis estimates showed that the species richness of the oral microbiota of HBV-CLD patients tended to be lower than that of the healthy controls, whereas those of the CHB and LC patients were highly similar (Fig. 1C and Figure S1). Based on the results of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) analysis, the rank-abundance curves for the bacterial communities of the healthy control and HBV-CLD groups exhibited similar patterns (Fig. 1D). A few species were abundant and the rare species accounted for the long right-hand tail of the rank-abundance curve. In addition, a Venn diagram displaying the overlapping OTU data for the three groups was developed to better understand their shared richness. This analysis showed that only 1,235 of the 8,672 OTUs accounting for the total richness were common to all of the samples, whereas 2,064 of 6,008 OTUs were common to the samples obtained from the CHB and LC patients (Fig. 1E). These data demonstrated that approximately 1,000 of the OTUs identified in the healthy-control samples were not detected in HBV-CLD-patient samples. To evaluate the extent of similarity of the microbial communities, the beta-diversity values were calculated using the unweighted UniFrac method and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was performed. Despite significant inter-individual variation, the oral microbiota of the HBV-CLD patients and the healthy controls could be clearly separated using PCoA (Fig. 1F), whereas the oral microbiota of the CHB patients could not be differentiated from that of the LC patients. These results indicated that a decreased level of bacterial diversity was found in the oral microbiota of the HBV-CLD patients compared with that of the healthy controls, whereas the overall structures of the oral microbiota of the CHB and LC patients were not significantly different.


Decreased Diversity of the Oral Microbiota of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Project.

Ling Z, Liu X, Cheng Y, Jiang X, Jiang H, Wang Y, Li L - Sci Rep (2015)

Comparison of the structures of the oral microbiota of the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.Shannon (A) and Simpson (B) indices were used to estimate the level of diversity (i.e., a combined assessment of the number of 97% similar bacterial taxa and their abundance) of the oral microbiota of children (data shown as the mean values and the SEM). Rarefaction curves were used to estimate the richness (at a 97% similarity level) of the oral microbiota of the three groups (C). The vertical axis shows the number of OTUs that expected to be found after sampling the number of tags or sequences shown on the horizontal axis. Rank abundance curve of the bacterial OTUs derived from the three groups (D). Venn diagram illustrating the overlap of the OTUs identified in the oral microbiota of the three groups (E). A principal-coordinate analysis plot of the oral microbiota based on the results of the unweighted UniFrac metric (F).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4660595&req=5

f1: Comparison of the structures of the oral microbiota of the healthy control, CHB and LC groups.Shannon (A) and Simpson (B) indices were used to estimate the level of diversity (i.e., a combined assessment of the number of 97% similar bacterial taxa and their abundance) of the oral microbiota of children (data shown as the mean values and the SEM). Rarefaction curves were used to estimate the richness (at a 97% similarity level) of the oral microbiota of the three groups (C). The vertical axis shows the number of OTUs that expected to be found after sampling the number of tags or sequences shown on the horizontal axis. Rank abundance curve of the bacterial OTUs derived from the three groups (D). Venn diagram illustrating the overlap of the OTUs identified in the oral microbiota of the three groups (E). A principal-coordinate analysis plot of the oral microbiota based on the results of the unweighted UniFrac metric (F).
Mentions: In our present pyrosequencing study, 612,922 raw sequences with a median read length of 467 base pairs (ranging from 201 to 540) were obtained. After quality trimming and chimera checking was conducted, 430,753 high-quality reads remained, accounting for 70.3% of the valid reads with an average of 14,358 reads (ranging from 7,266 to 20,529) per barcoded sample recovered for downstream analysis. The summary information is shown in Table 1, and the detailed characteristics of each sample are shown in Table S1. In total, 8,672 unique sequences were obtained from the three groups, representing all of the phylotypes present in the oral microbiota. The Good’s coverage values were high for all of the sequences in the three groups, indicating that the sequencing depth was sufficient for the investigation of the oral microbiota of HBV-CLD patients. Indicators of the alpha diversity, such as the Shannon and the Simpson indices, demonstrated that the level of diversity of the oral microbiota of the HBV-CLD patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy controls (p < 0.01, Fig. 1A,B). However, the diversity indices of the CHB and LC patients were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Rarefaction analysis estimates showed that the species richness of the oral microbiota of HBV-CLD patients tended to be lower than that of the healthy controls, whereas those of the CHB and LC patients were highly similar (Fig. 1C and Figure S1). Based on the results of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) analysis, the rank-abundance curves for the bacterial communities of the healthy control and HBV-CLD groups exhibited similar patterns (Fig. 1D). A few species were abundant and the rare species accounted for the long right-hand tail of the rank-abundance curve. In addition, a Venn diagram displaying the overlapping OTU data for the three groups was developed to better understand their shared richness. This analysis showed that only 1,235 of the 8,672 OTUs accounting for the total richness were common to all of the samples, whereas 2,064 of 6,008 OTUs were common to the samples obtained from the CHB and LC patients (Fig. 1E). These data demonstrated that approximately 1,000 of the OTUs identified in the healthy-control samples were not detected in HBV-CLD-patient samples. To evaluate the extent of similarity of the microbial communities, the beta-diversity values were calculated using the unweighted UniFrac method and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was performed. Despite significant inter-individual variation, the oral microbiota of the HBV-CLD patients and the healthy controls could be clearly separated using PCoA (Fig. 1F), whereas the oral microbiota of the CHB patients could not be differentiated from that of the LC patients. These results indicated that a decreased level of bacterial diversity was found in the oral microbiota of the HBV-CLD patients compared with that of the healthy controls, whereas the overall structures of the oral microbiota of the CHB and LC patients were not significantly different.

Bottom Line: High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD.However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003, China.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBV-CLD). However, the structure and composition of the oral microbiota of patients with HBV-CLD remains unclear. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly, which indicated that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota participated in the process of HBV-CLD development. However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor. These key oral-derived phylotypes might invade into the gut as opportunistic pathogens and contribute to altering the composition of the gut microbiota. This study provided important clues that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota might be involved in the development of HBV-CLD. Greater understanding of the relationships between the dysbiosis of oral microbiota and the development of HBV-CLD might facilitate the development of non-invasive differential diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments of HBV-CLD patients harbouring specific oral phylotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus