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Bioactive compounds from Carissa opaca roots and xanthine oxidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions in different solvents.

Saeed R, Ahmed D - Pharmacognosy Res (2014 Oct-Dec)

Bottom Line: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively.Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC50 5.0 mg/mL).Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots possess exploitable inhibitory activity against both the enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Carissa opaca is known for its many ethnomedicinal uses. There was a need to study its bioactivities and identify its phytochemicals.

Objective: The objective was to isolate and identify phytochemicals from roots of C. opaca and to evaluate xanthine oxidase (XO) and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions.

Materials and methods: Methanolic extract of finely divided powder of roots of C. opaca was obtained by cold maceration, followed by its fractionation to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions. Phytochemicals screening was done by standard protocols. XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions were studied. The most active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to the column and thin layer chromatography to isolate its compounds, which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography comparison.

Results: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 129 mg/mL and 4.9 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Chloroform fraction had IC50 of 154.2 mg/mL and 5.5 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC50 5.0 mg/mL). Hexane fraction showed good activity against alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited opposite trend against XO. The compounds isolated from ethyl acetate fraction included limonene, vanillin, lupeol, rutin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, Vitamin E, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, and 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester.

Conclusions: Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots possess exploitable inhibitory activity against both the enzymes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its factions in different solvents as a function of concentration (n = 3)
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Figure 2: Alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its factions in different solvents as a function of concentration (n = 3)

Mentions: Inhibition of alpha-amylase during digestion of food can be used as a strategy to control the blood glucose level and hence as a remedy for diabetes and obesity. Plants, with a great diversity of natural products, have the potential to provide safe and affordable inhibitors of alpha-amylase. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of C. opaca roots and its fractions in various solvents were determined in this study and the results are displayed in Table 2 and Figure 2. The activities of the extract and its fractions were determined as a function of concentration, and IC50 values were calculated. The methanolic extract and its fractions displayed parallel trends, which were dose-dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction was most potent against alpha-amylase activity with IC50 of 4.92 mg/mL followed by an aqueous fraction with IC50 of 5.02 mg/mL. Chloroform fraction also displayed significant activity (5.54 mg/mL). On the other hand, n-butanolic fraction exhibited lowest potential against alpha-amylase. The trend signified that moderately polar natural products and highly polar water-soluble phytochemicals should be most potent against alpha-amylase.[23] The fractions with high phenolic and flavonoid contents exhibited high alpha-amylase activity although the correlation was not that much strong as was in the case of XO. It seems a broad range of phytochemicals influences the activity of alpha-amylase.


Bioactive compounds from Carissa opaca roots and xanthine oxidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions in different solvents.

Saeed R, Ahmed D - Pharmacognosy Res (2014 Oct-Dec)

Alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its factions in different solvents as a function of concentration (n = 3)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4660506&req=5

Figure 2: Alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its factions in different solvents as a function of concentration (n = 3)
Mentions: Inhibition of alpha-amylase during digestion of food can be used as a strategy to control the blood glucose level and hence as a remedy for diabetes and obesity. Plants, with a great diversity of natural products, have the potential to provide safe and affordable inhibitors of alpha-amylase. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of C. opaca roots and its fractions in various solvents were determined in this study and the results are displayed in Table 2 and Figure 2. The activities of the extract and its fractions were determined as a function of concentration, and IC50 values were calculated. The methanolic extract and its fractions displayed parallel trends, which were dose-dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction was most potent against alpha-amylase activity with IC50 of 4.92 mg/mL followed by an aqueous fraction with IC50 of 5.02 mg/mL. Chloroform fraction also displayed significant activity (5.54 mg/mL). On the other hand, n-butanolic fraction exhibited lowest potential against alpha-amylase. The trend signified that moderately polar natural products and highly polar water-soluble phytochemicals should be most potent against alpha-amylase.[23] The fractions with high phenolic and flavonoid contents exhibited high alpha-amylase activity although the correlation was not that much strong as was in the case of XO. It seems a broad range of phytochemicals influences the activity of alpha-amylase.

Bottom Line: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively.Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC50 5.0 mg/mL).Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots possess exploitable inhibitory activity against both the enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Carissa opaca is known for its many ethnomedicinal uses. There was a need to study its bioactivities and identify its phytochemicals.

Objective: The objective was to isolate and identify phytochemicals from roots of C. opaca and to evaluate xanthine oxidase (XO) and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions.

Materials and methods: Methanolic extract of finely divided powder of roots of C. opaca was obtained by cold maceration, followed by its fractionation to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions. Phytochemicals screening was done by standard protocols. XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions were studied. The most active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to the column and thin layer chromatography to isolate its compounds, which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography comparison.

Results: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 129 mg/mL and 4.9 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Chloroform fraction had IC50 of 154.2 mg/mL and 5.5 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC50 5.0 mg/mL). Hexane fraction showed good activity against alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited opposite trend against XO. The compounds isolated from ethyl acetate fraction included limonene, vanillin, lupeol, rutin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, Vitamin E, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, and 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester.

Conclusions: Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots possess exploitable inhibitory activity against both the enzymes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus