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Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

Lee DK, Kim SV, Limansubroto AN, Yen A, Soundia A, Wang CY, Shi W, Hong C, Tetradis S, Kim Y, Park NH, Kang MK, Ho D - ACS Nano (2015)

Bottom Line: These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others.Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP.Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science , Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

ABSTRACT
Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic of NDGP embedded with ND-AMC conjugates. (A) Synthesis of NDGP. A polyisoprene solution was prepared by solvating trans-1,4,-polyisoprene in chloroform at a 1:71 (w/w) ratio of polyisoprene to chloroform. Zinc oxide (ZnO2), barium sulfate (BaSO4), and wax were added to this solution at a 3.3:0.55:0.15 ratio. ND-AMC was then mixed into the polyisoprene solution, and the final mixture was lyophilized to obtain solid NDGP. (B) NDGP can prevent bacterial contamination after root canal therapy due to the antimicrobial properties of both ND and amoxicillin.
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fig1: Schematic of NDGP embedded with ND-AMC conjugates. (A) Synthesis of NDGP. A polyisoprene solution was prepared by solvating trans-1,4,-polyisoprene in chloroform at a 1:71 (w/w) ratio of polyisoprene to chloroform. Zinc oxide (ZnO2), barium sulfate (BaSO4), and wax were added to this solution at a 3.3:0.55:0.15 ratio. ND-AMC was then mixed into the polyisoprene solution, and the final mixture was lyophilized to obtain solid NDGP. (B) NDGP can prevent bacterial contamination after root canal therapy due to the antimicrobial properties of both ND and amoxicillin.

Mentions: While GP offers numerous advantages, including biocompability, cost efficiency, ease of removal, and a long history of use, its inability to provide adequate seal to prevent bacterial percolation is a challenge in endodontic therapy. For instance, inadequate root canal seal around voids within the obturated root canal space may allow leakage due to absence of bonding between GP and the dentinal surface.6,7 Such voids with leakage may allow regrowth of bacterial within the root canals, including those in dentinal tubules, and establish reinfection of the root canal space, causing treatment failures. To address these possibilities of root canal reinfection, we harnessed the field of nanomedicine with a broad spectrum of powerful nanoparticle platforms for drug delivery, imaging, and other applications.8−13 We developed a nanodiamond–gutta percha composite (NDGP) embedded with nanodiamond–amoxicillin (ND-AMC) conjugates (Figure 1A), which can reduce the likelihood of root canal reinfection and enhance the treatment outcomes. NDs are carbon nanoparticles that are approximately 4–6 nm in diameter; they are waste byproducts that are readily processed for biomedical applications.14−24 Numerous studies have shown that NDs are biocompatible platforms for drug delivery and imaging, as they possess surface chemistries suited for electrostatic adsorption and/or covalent conjugation of various compounds.25−46 Most importantly, NDs themselves have demonstrated antimicrobial activity.47,48 Therefore, the use of biocompatible NDs to simultaneously sequester and localize the activity of amoxicillin as a model therapeutic, as well as confer enhanced mechanical properties to GP for improved ease of handling during obturation, provides a translationally relevant route toward improving endodontic treatment outcomes.


Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

Lee DK, Kim SV, Limansubroto AN, Yen A, Soundia A, Wang CY, Shi W, Hong C, Tetradis S, Kim Y, Park NH, Kang MK, Ho D - ACS Nano (2015)

Schematic of NDGP embedded with ND-AMC conjugates. (A) Synthesis of NDGP. A polyisoprene solution was prepared by solvating trans-1,4,-polyisoprene in chloroform at a 1:71 (w/w) ratio of polyisoprene to chloroform. Zinc oxide (ZnO2), barium sulfate (BaSO4), and wax were added to this solution at a 3.3:0.55:0.15 ratio. ND-AMC was then mixed into the polyisoprene solution, and the final mixture was lyophilized to obtain solid NDGP. (B) NDGP can prevent bacterial contamination after root canal therapy due to the antimicrobial properties of both ND and amoxicillin.
© Copyright Policy - editor-choice
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4660386&req=5

fig1: Schematic of NDGP embedded with ND-AMC conjugates. (A) Synthesis of NDGP. A polyisoprene solution was prepared by solvating trans-1,4,-polyisoprene in chloroform at a 1:71 (w/w) ratio of polyisoprene to chloroform. Zinc oxide (ZnO2), barium sulfate (BaSO4), and wax were added to this solution at a 3.3:0.55:0.15 ratio. ND-AMC was then mixed into the polyisoprene solution, and the final mixture was lyophilized to obtain solid NDGP. (B) NDGP can prevent bacterial contamination after root canal therapy due to the antimicrobial properties of both ND and amoxicillin.
Mentions: While GP offers numerous advantages, including biocompability, cost efficiency, ease of removal, and a long history of use, its inability to provide adequate seal to prevent bacterial percolation is a challenge in endodontic therapy. For instance, inadequate root canal seal around voids within the obturated root canal space may allow leakage due to absence of bonding between GP and the dentinal surface.6,7 Such voids with leakage may allow regrowth of bacterial within the root canals, including those in dentinal tubules, and establish reinfection of the root canal space, causing treatment failures. To address these possibilities of root canal reinfection, we harnessed the field of nanomedicine with a broad spectrum of powerful nanoparticle platforms for drug delivery, imaging, and other applications.8−13 We developed a nanodiamond–gutta percha composite (NDGP) embedded with nanodiamond–amoxicillin (ND-AMC) conjugates (Figure 1A), which can reduce the likelihood of root canal reinfection and enhance the treatment outcomes. NDs are carbon nanoparticles that are approximately 4–6 nm in diameter; they are waste byproducts that are readily processed for biomedical applications.14−24 Numerous studies have shown that NDs are biocompatible platforms for drug delivery and imaging, as they possess surface chemistries suited for electrostatic adsorption and/or covalent conjugation of various compounds.25−46 Most importantly, NDs themselves have demonstrated antimicrobial activity.47,48 Therefore, the use of biocompatible NDs to simultaneously sequester and localize the activity of amoxicillin as a model therapeutic, as well as confer enhanced mechanical properties to GP for improved ease of handling during obturation, provides a translationally relevant route toward improving endodontic treatment outcomes.

Bottom Line: These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others.Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP.Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science , Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

ABSTRACT
Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus