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Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

Blackmon K, Ben-Avi E, Wang X, Pardoe HR, Di Martino A, Halgren E, Devinsky O, Thesen T, Kuzniecky R - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC).Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group.This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of WMH-labeled clusters. Images depict T1-weighted scans of individual ASD participants. The subcortical segmentation overlay is depicted on the left-sided images for A–C. WMH clusters are purple (circled). (A) WMH cluster in the perivascular region; (B–C) WMH clusters in the periventricular region.
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f0010: Location of WMH-labeled clusters. Images depict T1-weighted scans of individual ASD participants. The subcortical segmentation overlay is depicted on the left-sided images for A–C. WMH clusters are purple (circled). (A) WMH cluster in the perivascular region; (B–C) WMH clusters in the periventricular region.

Mentions: WMH clusters were found in perivascular spaces (Fig. 2A), deep subcortical white matter, periventricular regions (Fig. 2B–C), and superficial white matter regions adjacent to the gray–white matter junction. In the ASD group, 15% of the total WMH volume was accounted for by labeling of the perivascular spaces, which were manually removed before calculating remaining subregional volumes. The largest portion of the remaining WMH volumes (70%) were in the periventricular region (left lateral ventricle: 43%; left inferior ventricle: 0.5%; right lateral ventricle: 26%; right inferior ventricle: < 0.1%). The next largest portion (19%) was in the deep subcortical white matter and the smallest portion (11%) in the gray–white matter junction. A similar pattern was observed in the TDC group: 7% of the total WMH volume was accounted for by labeling of the perivascular spaces. After the removal of these clusters, 74% of the remaining clusters were from the periventricular region (left lateral ventricle: 46%; left inferior ventricle: < 0.5%; right lateral ventricle: 28%; right inferior ventricle: < 0.1%). The remaining WMH clusters were in the deep subcortical white matter (15%) and gray–white matter junction (11%). Groupwise descriptive information and between-group effect sizes for total and subregional WMH volumes are provided in Table 4.


Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

Blackmon K, Ben-Avi E, Wang X, Pardoe HR, Di Martino A, Halgren E, Devinsky O, Thesen T, Kuzniecky R - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Location of WMH-labeled clusters. Images depict T1-weighted scans of individual ASD participants. The subcortical segmentation overlay is depicted on the left-sided images for A–C. WMH clusters are purple (circled). (A) WMH cluster in the perivascular region; (B–C) WMH clusters in the periventricular region.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4660377&req=5

f0010: Location of WMH-labeled clusters. Images depict T1-weighted scans of individual ASD participants. The subcortical segmentation overlay is depicted on the left-sided images for A–C. WMH clusters are purple (circled). (A) WMH cluster in the perivascular region; (B–C) WMH clusters in the periventricular region.
Mentions: WMH clusters were found in perivascular spaces (Fig. 2A), deep subcortical white matter, periventricular regions (Fig. 2B–C), and superficial white matter regions adjacent to the gray–white matter junction. In the ASD group, 15% of the total WMH volume was accounted for by labeling of the perivascular spaces, which were manually removed before calculating remaining subregional volumes. The largest portion of the remaining WMH volumes (70%) were in the periventricular region (left lateral ventricle: 43%; left inferior ventricle: 0.5%; right lateral ventricle: 26%; right inferior ventricle: < 0.1%). The next largest portion (19%) was in the deep subcortical white matter and the smallest portion (11%) in the gray–white matter junction. A similar pattern was observed in the TDC group: 7% of the total WMH volume was accounted for by labeling of the perivascular spaces. After the removal of these clusters, 74% of the remaining clusters were from the periventricular region (left lateral ventricle: 46%; left inferior ventricle: < 0.5%; right lateral ventricle: 28%; right inferior ventricle: < 0.1%). The remaining WMH clusters were in the deep subcortical white matter (15%) and gray–white matter junction (11%). Groupwise descriptive information and between-group effect sizes for total and subregional WMH volumes are provided in Table 4.

Bottom Line: Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC).Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group.This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus