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Paracingulate sulcus morphology is associated with hallucinations in the human brain.

Garrison JR, Fernyhough C, McCarthy-Jones S, Haggard M, Australian Schizophrenia Research BankSimons JS - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Hallucinations are common in psychiatric disorders, and are also experienced by many individuals who are not mentally ill.Using both newly validated visual classification techniques and automated, data-driven methods, hallucinations were associated with specific brain morphology differences in the paracingulate sulcus, a fold in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a 1 cm reduction in sulcal length increasing the likelihood of hallucinations by 19.9%, regardless of the sensory modality in which they were experienced.The findings suggest a specific morphological basis for a pervasive feature of typical and atypical human experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK.

ABSTRACT
Hallucinations are common in psychiatric disorders, and are also experienced by many individuals who are not mentally ill. Here, in 153 participants, we investigate brain structural markers that predict the occurrence of hallucinations by comparing patients with schizophrenia who have experienced hallucinations against patients who have not, matched on a number of demographic and clinical variables. Using both newly validated visual classification techniques and automated, data-driven methods, hallucinations were associated with specific brain morphology differences in the paracingulate sulcus, a fold in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a 1 cm reduction in sulcal length increasing the likelihood of hallucinations by 19.9%, regardless of the sensory modality in which they were experienced. The findings suggest a specific morphological basis for a pervasive feature of typical and atypical human experience.

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PCS measurement for two example images.The paracingulate sulcus (PCS), marked in red, lies dorsal and parallel to the cingulate sulcus (CS), itself dorsal to the corpus callosum. (a) In this image, the PCS is continuous and is measured from its origin in the first quadrant (indicated by the cross-hairs at y=0 and z=0) to its end. (b) In this example, the PCS appears less distinct; it is measured from the point at which it runs in a posterior direction, dorsal to the cingulate sulcus.
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f1: PCS measurement for two example images.The paracingulate sulcus (PCS), marked in red, lies dorsal and parallel to the cingulate sulcus (CS), itself dorsal to the corpus callosum. (a) In this image, the PCS is continuous and is measured from its origin in the first quadrant (indicated by the cross-hairs at y=0 and z=0) to its end. (b) In this example, the PCS appears less distinct; it is measured from the point at which it runs in a posterior direction, dorsal to the cingulate sulcus.

Mentions: Here, we investigate PCS length in both hemispheres in three matched groups: schizophrenia patients with a history of hallucinations, schizophrenia patients with no history of hallucinations and healthy controls (see Table 1 for participant details). PCS length was measured from structural MRI scans using a newly validated visual classification technique and data-driven whole-brain analysis methods, carried out blind to diagnosis (see Methods section for details). Examples of long and short PCS images are displayed in Fig. 1. We report converging results from across methods indicating that hallucination status can be determined by specific brain morphology differences in the PCS.


Paracingulate sulcus morphology is associated with hallucinations in the human brain.

Garrison JR, Fernyhough C, McCarthy-Jones S, Haggard M, Australian Schizophrenia Research BankSimons JS - Nat Commun (2015)

PCS measurement for two example images.The paracingulate sulcus (PCS), marked in red, lies dorsal and parallel to the cingulate sulcus (CS), itself dorsal to the corpus callosum. (a) In this image, the PCS is continuous and is measured from its origin in the first quadrant (indicated by the cross-hairs at y=0 and z=0) to its end. (b) In this example, the PCS appears less distinct; it is measured from the point at which it runs in a posterior direction, dorsal to the cingulate sulcus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4660352&req=5

f1: PCS measurement for two example images.The paracingulate sulcus (PCS), marked in red, lies dorsal and parallel to the cingulate sulcus (CS), itself dorsal to the corpus callosum. (a) In this image, the PCS is continuous and is measured from its origin in the first quadrant (indicated by the cross-hairs at y=0 and z=0) to its end. (b) In this example, the PCS appears less distinct; it is measured from the point at which it runs in a posterior direction, dorsal to the cingulate sulcus.
Mentions: Here, we investigate PCS length in both hemispheres in three matched groups: schizophrenia patients with a history of hallucinations, schizophrenia patients with no history of hallucinations and healthy controls (see Table 1 for participant details). PCS length was measured from structural MRI scans using a newly validated visual classification technique and data-driven whole-brain analysis methods, carried out blind to diagnosis (see Methods section for details). Examples of long and short PCS images are displayed in Fig. 1. We report converging results from across methods indicating that hallucination status can be determined by specific brain morphology differences in the PCS.

Bottom Line: Hallucinations are common in psychiatric disorders, and are also experienced by many individuals who are not mentally ill.Using both newly validated visual classification techniques and automated, data-driven methods, hallucinations were associated with specific brain morphology differences in the paracingulate sulcus, a fold in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a 1 cm reduction in sulcal length increasing the likelihood of hallucinations by 19.9%, regardless of the sensory modality in which they were experienced.The findings suggest a specific morphological basis for a pervasive feature of typical and atypical human experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK.

ABSTRACT
Hallucinations are common in psychiatric disorders, and are also experienced by many individuals who are not mentally ill. Here, in 153 participants, we investigate brain structural markers that predict the occurrence of hallucinations by comparing patients with schizophrenia who have experienced hallucinations against patients who have not, matched on a number of demographic and clinical variables. Using both newly validated visual classification techniques and automated, data-driven methods, hallucinations were associated with specific brain morphology differences in the paracingulate sulcus, a fold in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a 1 cm reduction in sulcal length increasing the likelihood of hallucinations by 19.9%, regardless of the sensory modality in which they were experienced. The findings suggest a specific morphological basis for a pervasive feature of typical and atypical human experience.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus