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Rapid Recent Warming of Coral Reefs in the Florida Keys.

Manzello DP - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The oldest known in-situ temperature record of any coral reef is from Hens and Chickens Reef (H&C) in the Florida Keys, which showed significant warming from 1975-2014.The measured rate of warming predicts the start of annual bleaching between 2020 and 2034, sooner than expected from climate models and satellite-based sea temperatures.These data show that thermal stress is increasing and occurring on a near-annual basis on Florida Keys reefs due to ocean warming from climate change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML), NOAA, 4301 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149.

ABSTRACT
Coral reef decline in the Florida Keys has been well-publicized, controversial, and polarizing owing to debate over the causative agent being climate change versus overfishing. The recurrence of mass bleaching in 2014, the sixth event since 1987, prompted a reanalysis of temperature data. The summer and winter of 2014 were the warmest on record. The oldest known in-situ temperature record of any coral reef is from Hens and Chickens Reef (H&C) in the Florida Keys, which showed significant warming from 1975-2014. The average number of days ≥31.5 and 32(o)C per year increased 2670% and 2560%, respectively, from the mid-1990 s to present relative to the previous 20 years. In every year after 1992 and 1994, maximum daily average temperatures exceeded 30.5 and 31°C, respectively. From 1975-1994, temperatures were <31 °C in 61% of years, and in 44% of the years prior to 1992 temperatures were <30.5 °C. The measured rate of warming predicts the start of annual bleaching between 2020 and 2034, sooner than expected from climate models and satellite-based sea temperatures. These data show that thermal stress is increasing and occurring on a near-annual basis on Florida Keys reefs due to ocean warming from climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sites in Florida Keys where temperature measurements were obtained.Open circles are offshore sites, closed circles are inshore sites, and asterisk is Hens and Chickens. Abbreviations, MLRF, Molasses Reef (25.012°N, 80.376°W); UKO, Upper Keys Offshore (24.947oN, 80.502oW); H&C, Hens and Chickens Reef (24.933°N, 80.549°W); UKI, Upper Keys Inshore (24.939oN, 80.563oW); MKO, Middle Keys Offshore (24.767°N, 80.753°W); MKI, Middle Keys Inshore (24.812oN, 80.761oW); LKO, Lower Keys Offshore (24.551oN, 81.402oW); LKI, Lower Keys Inshore (24.597oN, 81.455oW). The map was taken from ArcGIS base layers and modified in Adobe Illustrator.
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f2: Sites in Florida Keys where temperature measurements were obtained.Open circles are offshore sites, closed circles are inshore sites, and asterisk is Hens and Chickens. Abbreviations, MLRF, Molasses Reef (25.012°N, 80.376°W); UKO, Upper Keys Offshore (24.947oN, 80.502oW); H&C, Hens and Chickens Reef (24.933°N, 80.549°W); UKI, Upper Keys Inshore (24.939oN, 80.563oW); MKO, Middle Keys Offshore (24.767°N, 80.753°W); MKI, Middle Keys Inshore (24.812oN, 80.761oW); LKO, Lower Keys Offshore (24.551oN, 81.402oW); LKI, Lower Keys Inshore (24.597oN, 81.455oW). The map was taken from ArcGIS base layers and modified in Adobe Illustrator.

Mentions: There is a paucity of long-term, in-situ temperature data for coral reefs. The most continuous record in the Florida Keys was initiated in 1988 after the first mass bleaching event had taken place in 1987. This record is from the shallow lighthouse (~5 m) on MLRF, which is an offshore reef in the upper Florida Keys (Fig. 2). The oldest record is from Hens and Chickens Reef (H&C), an inshore patch reef, and was collected by J. Harold Hudson and colleagues from 1975–2007 (ref. 18). This is the oldest known temperature record collected on any coral reef worldwide. Time-series temperature measurements do exist farther back in time, but these were collected from adjacent, non-reef areas19. Other in-situ records were established in the late 1980 s and early 1990 s on existing structures at offshore reef sites SE of Miami to Key West, as well as the Dry Tortugas15. These records, unfortunately, have large gaps, and two of these structures were damaged or destroyed by hurricanes in 2004 and 2005, ending data collection.


Rapid Recent Warming of Coral Reefs in the Florida Keys.

Manzello DP - Sci Rep (2015)

Sites in Florida Keys where temperature measurements were obtained.Open circles are offshore sites, closed circles are inshore sites, and asterisk is Hens and Chickens. Abbreviations, MLRF, Molasses Reef (25.012°N, 80.376°W); UKO, Upper Keys Offshore (24.947oN, 80.502oW); H&C, Hens and Chickens Reef (24.933°N, 80.549°W); UKI, Upper Keys Inshore (24.939oN, 80.563oW); MKO, Middle Keys Offshore (24.767°N, 80.753°W); MKI, Middle Keys Inshore (24.812oN, 80.761oW); LKO, Lower Keys Offshore (24.551oN, 81.402oW); LKI, Lower Keys Inshore (24.597oN, 81.455oW). The map was taken from ArcGIS base layers and modified in Adobe Illustrator.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4645222&req=5

f2: Sites in Florida Keys where temperature measurements were obtained.Open circles are offshore sites, closed circles are inshore sites, and asterisk is Hens and Chickens. Abbreviations, MLRF, Molasses Reef (25.012°N, 80.376°W); UKO, Upper Keys Offshore (24.947oN, 80.502oW); H&C, Hens and Chickens Reef (24.933°N, 80.549°W); UKI, Upper Keys Inshore (24.939oN, 80.563oW); MKO, Middle Keys Offshore (24.767°N, 80.753°W); MKI, Middle Keys Inshore (24.812oN, 80.761oW); LKO, Lower Keys Offshore (24.551oN, 81.402oW); LKI, Lower Keys Inshore (24.597oN, 81.455oW). The map was taken from ArcGIS base layers and modified in Adobe Illustrator.
Mentions: There is a paucity of long-term, in-situ temperature data for coral reefs. The most continuous record in the Florida Keys was initiated in 1988 after the first mass bleaching event had taken place in 1987. This record is from the shallow lighthouse (~5 m) on MLRF, which is an offshore reef in the upper Florida Keys (Fig. 2). The oldest record is from Hens and Chickens Reef (H&C), an inshore patch reef, and was collected by J. Harold Hudson and colleagues from 1975–2007 (ref. 18). This is the oldest known temperature record collected on any coral reef worldwide. Time-series temperature measurements do exist farther back in time, but these were collected from adjacent, non-reef areas19. Other in-situ records were established in the late 1980 s and early 1990 s on existing structures at offshore reef sites SE of Miami to Key West, as well as the Dry Tortugas15. These records, unfortunately, have large gaps, and two of these structures were damaged or destroyed by hurricanes in 2004 and 2005, ending data collection.

Bottom Line: The oldest known in-situ temperature record of any coral reef is from Hens and Chickens Reef (H&C) in the Florida Keys, which showed significant warming from 1975-2014.The measured rate of warming predicts the start of annual bleaching between 2020 and 2034, sooner than expected from climate models and satellite-based sea temperatures.These data show that thermal stress is increasing and occurring on a near-annual basis on Florida Keys reefs due to ocean warming from climate change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML), NOAA, 4301 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149.

ABSTRACT
Coral reef decline in the Florida Keys has been well-publicized, controversial, and polarizing owing to debate over the causative agent being climate change versus overfishing. The recurrence of mass bleaching in 2014, the sixth event since 1987, prompted a reanalysis of temperature data. The summer and winter of 2014 were the warmest on record. The oldest known in-situ temperature record of any coral reef is from Hens and Chickens Reef (H&C) in the Florida Keys, which showed significant warming from 1975-2014. The average number of days ≥31.5 and 32(o)C per year increased 2670% and 2560%, respectively, from the mid-1990 s to present relative to the previous 20 years. In every year after 1992 and 1994, maximum daily average temperatures exceeded 30.5 and 31°C, respectively. From 1975-1994, temperatures were <31 °C in 61% of years, and in 44% of the years prior to 1992 temperatures were <30.5 °C. The measured rate of warming predicts the start of annual bleaching between 2020 and 2034, sooner than expected from climate models and satellite-based sea temperatures. These data show that thermal stress is increasing and occurring on a near-annual basis on Florida Keys reefs due to ocean warming from climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus