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'Forget me (not)?' - Remembering Forget-Items Versus Un-Cued Items in Directed Forgetting.

Zwissler B, Schindler S, Fischer H, Plewnia C, Kissler JM - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Across all experiments, including perceptually fully counterbalanced variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI.Thus, the F-cue results in active processing and reduces false alarm rate, but this does not impair recognition memory beyond an un-cued baseline condition, where only incidental encoding occurs.Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Neurophysiology and Interventional Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital Tübingen - University of Tübingen Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Humans need to be able to selectively control their memories. This capability is often investigated in directed forgetting (DF) paradigms. In item-method DF, individual items are presented and each is followed by either a forget- or remember-instruction. On a surprise test of all items, memory is then worse for to-be-forgotten items (TBF) compared to to-be-remembered items (TBR). This is thought to result mainly from selective rehearsal of TBR, although inhibitory mechanisms also appear to be recruited by this paradigm. Here, we investigate whether the mnemonic consequences of a forget instruction differ from the ones of incidental encoding, where items are presented without a specific memory instruction. Four experiments were conducted where un-cued items (UI) were interspersed and recognition performance was compared between TBR, TBF, and UI stimuli. Accuracy was encouraged via a performance-dependent monetary bonus. Experiments varied the number of items and their presentation speed and used either letter-cues or symbolic cues. Across all experiments, including perceptually fully counterbalanced variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI. Moreover, participants made consistently fewer false alarms and used a very conservative response criterion when responding to TBF stimuli. Thus, the F-cue results in active processing and reduces false alarm rate, but this does not impair recognition memory beyond an un-cued baseline condition, where only incidental encoding occurs. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of the picture sets for experiments 1–3 showing three representative target-distracter pairs.
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Figure 1: Illustration of the picture sets for experiments 1–3 showing three representative target-distracter pairs.

Mentions: Seventy-five target-distracter pairs of images were used for memory testing. Pairs were thematically unique within the set and differed only in perceptual detail (see Figure 1 for examples), thus allowing for a separate analysis of hits and false alarms in response to the differently cued items. The images showed people, landscapes, animals, or social scenes. One member of each pair was assigned to each of two sets (A and B), image-set assignment was counterbalanced, and image-cue assignment was randomized. During learning, all set A images were presented in random order. During recognition, all images from both sets were shown at random, set B images serving as related lures.


'Forget me (not)?' - Remembering Forget-Items Versus Un-Cued Items in Directed Forgetting.

Zwissler B, Schindler S, Fischer H, Plewnia C, Kissler JM - Front Psychol (2015)

Illustration of the picture sets for experiments 1–3 showing three representative target-distracter pairs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644810&req=5

Figure 1: Illustration of the picture sets for experiments 1–3 showing three representative target-distracter pairs.
Mentions: Seventy-five target-distracter pairs of images were used for memory testing. Pairs were thematically unique within the set and differed only in perceptual detail (see Figure 1 for examples), thus allowing for a separate analysis of hits and false alarms in response to the differently cued items. The images showed people, landscapes, animals, or social scenes. One member of each pair was assigned to each of two sets (A and B), image-set assignment was counterbalanced, and image-cue assignment was randomized. During learning, all set A images were presented in random order. During recognition, all images from both sets were shown at random, set B images serving as related lures.

Bottom Line: Across all experiments, including perceptually fully counterbalanced variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI.Thus, the F-cue results in active processing and reduces false alarm rate, but this does not impair recognition memory beyond an un-cued baseline condition, where only incidental encoding occurs.Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Neurophysiology and Interventional Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital Tübingen - University of Tübingen Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Humans need to be able to selectively control their memories. This capability is often investigated in directed forgetting (DF) paradigms. In item-method DF, individual items are presented and each is followed by either a forget- or remember-instruction. On a surprise test of all items, memory is then worse for to-be-forgotten items (TBF) compared to to-be-remembered items (TBR). This is thought to result mainly from selective rehearsal of TBR, although inhibitory mechanisms also appear to be recruited by this paradigm. Here, we investigate whether the mnemonic consequences of a forget instruction differ from the ones of incidental encoding, where items are presented without a specific memory instruction. Four experiments were conducted where un-cued items (UI) were interspersed and recognition performance was compared between TBR, TBF, and UI stimuli. Accuracy was encouraged via a performance-dependent monetary bonus. Experiments varied the number of items and their presentation speed and used either letter-cues or symbolic cues. Across all experiments, including perceptually fully counterbalanced variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI. Moreover, participants made consistently fewer false alarms and used a very conservative response criterion when responding to TBF stimuli. Thus, the F-cue results in active processing and reduces false alarm rate, but this does not impair recognition memory beyond an un-cued baseline condition, where only incidental encoding occurs. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus