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The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian.

Garnham A, Yakovlev Y - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women.Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb).Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Sussex Brighton, UK.

ABSTRACT
Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb). In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially) generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Three-way interaction of tense (past, present), pronoun (she, he), and noun group (unpaired, paired, colloquial) in second sentence reading times (ms), for specific sentences. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.
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Figure 3: Three-way interaction of tense (past, present), pronoun (she, he), and noun group (unpaired, paired, colloquial) in second sentence reading times (ms), for specific sentences. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.

Mentions: Table 5 shows the mean raw reading times, after truncation, for the second sentences of the passages in the past and present tenses. Mixed models were fitted using the SPSS MIXED procedure, as for the first sentences, and with the same limitations (see footnote 2). There were main effects of tense, F(1, 1282.039) = 7.111, p = 0.008, pronoun, F(1, 1282.233) = 10.734, p = 0.002, and gender stereotype, F(2, 62.080) = 2.609, p = 0.082. Responses were faster for passages with he rather than she (2548 vs. 2800 ms), for past tense passages than present tense passages (2572 vs. 2776 ms), and for passages with neutral stereotypes (2530 ms) than female (2677 ms) and male (2815 ms). There were also significant two-way interactions between tense and pronoun, F(1, 1282.089) = 19.343, p < 0.001, and pronoun and stereotype, F(2, 1295.076) = 5.605, p = 0.004). Finally, there was a significant three-way interaction of tense, pronoun and noun group, F(2, 1284.519) = 3.126, p = 0.044. The pronoun effect was restricted to present tense passages 604 vs. –99 ms), and among those it occurred only for paired and colloquial nouns, not unpaired nouns, with the larger effect being for paired nouns. These effects are illustrated in Figure 3. The pronoun by stereotype interaction is clearly of interest to the literature on stereotypes. The pronoun “she” was read more slowly after male stereotyped nouns (3074 ms) than female (2592 ms.) or neutral (2735 ms), whereas “he” was read more quickly after male (2557 ms) and neutral (2325 ms) than female (2761 ms) stereotypes. Figure 4 shows these effects. In the past tense (blue bars), the standard stereotype match-mismatch effect is seen, including the usual advantage for masculine pronouns following neutral stereotypes, though this effect is numerically small in the current data set. The corresponding effect in the present tense (red bars) is overlaid on the main effect of pronoun, with sentences containing the masculine pronoun being read faster overall in the present tense.


The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian.

Garnham A, Yakovlev Y - Front Psychol (2015)

Three-way interaction of tense (past, present), pronoun (she, he), and noun group (unpaired, paired, colloquial) in second sentence reading times (ms), for specific sentences. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644804&req=5

Figure 3: Three-way interaction of tense (past, present), pronoun (she, he), and noun group (unpaired, paired, colloquial) in second sentence reading times (ms), for specific sentences. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.
Mentions: Table 5 shows the mean raw reading times, after truncation, for the second sentences of the passages in the past and present tenses. Mixed models were fitted using the SPSS MIXED procedure, as for the first sentences, and with the same limitations (see footnote 2). There were main effects of tense, F(1, 1282.039) = 7.111, p = 0.008, pronoun, F(1, 1282.233) = 10.734, p = 0.002, and gender stereotype, F(2, 62.080) = 2.609, p = 0.082. Responses were faster for passages with he rather than she (2548 vs. 2800 ms), for past tense passages than present tense passages (2572 vs. 2776 ms), and for passages with neutral stereotypes (2530 ms) than female (2677 ms) and male (2815 ms). There were also significant two-way interactions between tense and pronoun, F(1, 1282.089) = 19.343, p < 0.001, and pronoun and stereotype, F(2, 1295.076) = 5.605, p = 0.004). Finally, there was a significant three-way interaction of tense, pronoun and noun group, F(2, 1284.519) = 3.126, p = 0.044. The pronoun effect was restricted to present tense passages 604 vs. –99 ms), and among those it occurred only for paired and colloquial nouns, not unpaired nouns, with the larger effect being for paired nouns. These effects are illustrated in Figure 3. The pronoun by stereotype interaction is clearly of interest to the literature on stereotypes. The pronoun “she” was read more slowly after male stereotyped nouns (3074 ms) than female (2592 ms.) or neutral (2735 ms), whereas “he” was read more quickly after male (2557 ms) and neutral (2325 ms) than female (2761 ms) stereotypes. Figure 4 shows these effects. In the past tense (blue bars), the standard stereotype match-mismatch effect is seen, including the usual advantage for masculine pronouns following neutral stereotypes, though this effect is numerically small in the current data set. The corresponding effect in the present tense (red bars) is overlaid on the main effect of pronoun, with sentences containing the masculine pronoun being read faster overall in the present tense.

Bottom Line: Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women.Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb).Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Sussex Brighton, UK.

ABSTRACT
Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb). In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially) generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus