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The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian.

Garnham A, Yakovlev Y - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women.Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb).Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Sussex Brighton, UK.

ABSTRACT
Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb). In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially) generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Interaction of stereotype (female, neutral, male) and gender marking (masculine, feminine) in first sentence reading times (ms), for past tense specific sentences only. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.
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Figure 2: Interaction of stereotype (female, neutral, male) and gender marking (masculine, feminine) in first sentence reading times (ms), for past tense specific sentences only. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.

Mentions: For the first sentences there was a main effect of tense, F(1, 1237.181) = 7.78, p = 0.005, Reading was faster for present tense passages than past tense passages (3920 vs. 4152 ms). For the past tense sentences only there was a main effect of the gender marking on the predicate F(1, 573.102) = 3.691, p = 0.055., and a marginal interaction of gender marking and stereotype, F(2, 597.831) = 2.739, p = 0.065. Reading times were higher when the gender marking was feminine (4301 vs. 4003 ms). In addition, times were higher when masculine gender marking mismatched a female stereotype than when it was consistent with a male or neutral stereotype. There were no differential effects of stereotype when the gender marking was feminine. The interaction pattern, including the stereotype match-mismatch effect can be seen in Figure 2. In the analysis of the residual reading times, the crucial 3-way interaction of tense, stereotype and gender marking was not significant, F(2, 1253.111) = 1.709, p = 0.18), though it was significant in the analysis of the (trimmed) raw reading times, which we ran to compute the means reported in Table 4, F(2, 1314) = 3.372, p = 0.035.


The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian.

Garnham A, Yakovlev Y - Front Psychol (2015)

Interaction of stereotype (female, neutral, male) and gender marking (masculine, feminine) in first sentence reading times (ms), for past tense specific sentences only. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644804&req=5

Figure 2: Interaction of stereotype (female, neutral, male) and gender marking (masculine, feminine) in first sentence reading times (ms), for past tense specific sentences only. Error bars represent standard errors calculated by the SPSS MIXED procedure.
Mentions: For the first sentences there was a main effect of tense, F(1, 1237.181) = 7.78, p = 0.005, Reading was faster for present tense passages than past tense passages (3920 vs. 4152 ms). For the past tense sentences only there was a main effect of the gender marking on the predicate F(1, 573.102) = 3.691, p = 0.055., and a marginal interaction of gender marking and stereotype, F(2, 597.831) = 2.739, p = 0.065. Reading times were higher when the gender marking was feminine (4301 vs. 4003 ms). In addition, times were higher when masculine gender marking mismatched a female stereotype than when it was consistent with a male or neutral stereotype. There were no differential effects of stereotype when the gender marking was feminine. The interaction pattern, including the stereotype match-mismatch effect can be seen in Figure 2. In the analysis of the residual reading times, the crucial 3-way interaction of tense, stereotype and gender marking was not significant, F(2, 1253.111) = 1.709, p = 0.18), though it was significant in the analysis of the (trimmed) raw reading times, which we ran to compute the means reported in Table 4, F(2, 1314) = 3.372, p = 0.035.

Bottom Line: Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women.Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb).Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Sussex Brighton, UK.

ABSTRACT
Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb). In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially) generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus