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In Vivo Mapping of Cortical Columnar Networks in the Monkey with Focal Electrical and Optical Stimulation.

Roe AW, Chernov MM, Friedman RM, Chen G - Front Neuroanat (2015)

Bottom Line: However, there has been little emphasis on understanding connection patterns between functionally specific cortical columns.These new approaches, when applied systematically on a large scale, will elucidate functionally specific intra-areal and inter-areal network connection patterns.Such functionally specific network data can provide accurate views of brain network topology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
There are currently largescale efforts to understand the brain as a connection machine. However, there has been little emphasis on understanding connection patterns between functionally specific cortical columns. Here, we review development and application of focal electrical and optical stimulation methods combined with optical imaging and fMRI mapping in the non-human primate. These new approaches, when applied systematically on a large scale, will elucidate functionally specific intra-areal and inter-areal network connection patterns. Such functionally specific network data can provide accurate views of brain network topology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Post-stimulus time histogram of neural response evoked by INS stimulation (gray bar). (B,C) Increased INS radiant exposure leads to an increase in intrinsic signal magnitude. (B) Time course of signal for different radiant exposures. (C) Radiant exposure vs. peak amplitude of the intrinsic signal. Relationship fit with a linear equation. (Laser parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 400 μm fiber; D,E) INS potentiates response to visual stimulation. (D) Red and blue outlines demarcate left and right: ocular dominance columns, respectively. Left: OD map generated by subtraction of left minus right eye. Right: INS applied to left eye column during visual stimulation leads to relative enhancement of left eye columns (darkening in red outlined areas) and relative suppression of right eye columns (lightening in blue outlined areas). Scale bar: 1 mm. (E) This is observed by examining averaged time courses from pixels in left eye (left panel, red arrow indicates increase in optical signal reflectance) and right eye (right panel, red arrow indicates decline in optical signal reflectance) columns. Dark gray bar: INS stimulation period. Light gray bar: visual stimulation period. Error bars: SEM. (INS parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 1.3 J/cm2, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 100 μm fiber). Y axis: dR/R. (F) Effect of fiber size. Left: Schematic displaying 100, 200, and 400 μm diameter fibers. Predicted intrinsic signal responses: 200 μm fiber (red) produces larger enhancement than 100 μm fiber (blue). However, 400 μm fiber impinges on domains of other eye and leads to relative suppression (green). Right: actual data is consistent with prediction. (A–C from Cayce et al., 2011, D–F from Cayce et al., 2013).
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Figure 5: (A) Post-stimulus time histogram of neural response evoked by INS stimulation (gray bar). (B,C) Increased INS radiant exposure leads to an increase in intrinsic signal magnitude. (B) Time course of signal for different radiant exposures. (C) Radiant exposure vs. peak amplitude of the intrinsic signal. Relationship fit with a linear equation. (Laser parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 400 μm fiber; D,E) INS potentiates response to visual stimulation. (D) Red and blue outlines demarcate left and right: ocular dominance columns, respectively. Left: OD map generated by subtraction of left minus right eye. Right: INS applied to left eye column during visual stimulation leads to relative enhancement of left eye columns (darkening in red outlined areas) and relative suppression of right eye columns (lightening in blue outlined areas). Scale bar: 1 mm. (E) This is observed by examining averaged time courses from pixels in left eye (left panel, red arrow indicates increase in optical signal reflectance) and right eye (right panel, red arrow indicates decline in optical signal reflectance) columns. Dark gray bar: INS stimulation period. Light gray bar: visual stimulation period. Error bars: SEM. (INS parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 1.3 J/cm2, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 100 μm fiber). Y axis: dR/R. (F) Effect of fiber size. Left: Schematic displaying 100, 200, and 400 μm diameter fibers. Predicted intrinsic signal responses: 200 μm fiber (red) produces larger enhancement than 100 μm fiber (blue). However, 400 μm fiber impinges on domains of other eye and leads to relative suppression (green). Right: actual data is consistent with prediction. (A–C from Cayce et al., 2011, D–F from Cayce et al., 2013).

Mentions: Focal INS stimulation induces neural response as assessed with electrophysiology, optical imaging, and BOLD fMRI imaging. Magnitude of this response is related to the intensity of stimulation (Figures 5A–C). This focal stimulation can elicit functionally specific effects related to columnar organization. In visual cortex, application of focal stimulation to single ocular dominance columns in V1 can, in combination with visual stimulation, enhance response of shared eye ocular dominance columns (Figures 5D,E), suggesting a selective modulation of functionally specific intra-areal networks in V1. Similar modulatory results, by electrical stimulation, have been obtained by Ohayon et al. (2013).


In Vivo Mapping of Cortical Columnar Networks in the Monkey with Focal Electrical and Optical Stimulation.

Roe AW, Chernov MM, Friedman RM, Chen G - Front Neuroanat (2015)

(A) Post-stimulus time histogram of neural response evoked by INS stimulation (gray bar). (B,C) Increased INS radiant exposure leads to an increase in intrinsic signal magnitude. (B) Time course of signal for different radiant exposures. (C) Radiant exposure vs. peak amplitude of the intrinsic signal. Relationship fit with a linear equation. (Laser parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 400 μm fiber; D,E) INS potentiates response to visual stimulation. (D) Red and blue outlines demarcate left and right: ocular dominance columns, respectively. Left: OD map generated by subtraction of left minus right eye. Right: INS applied to left eye column during visual stimulation leads to relative enhancement of left eye columns (darkening in red outlined areas) and relative suppression of right eye columns (lightening in blue outlined areas). Scale bar: 1 mm. (E) This is observed by examining averaged time courses from pixels in left eye (left panel, red arrow indicates increase in optical signal reflectance) and right eye (right panel, red arrow indicates decline in optical signal reflectance) columns. Dark gray bar: INS stimulation period. Light gray bar: visual stimulation period. Error bars: SEM. (INS parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 1.3 J/cm2, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 100 μm fiber). Y axis: dR/R. (F) Effect of fiber size. Left: Schematic displaying 100, 200, and 400 μm diameter fibers. Predicted intrinsic signal responses: 200 μm fiber (red) produces larger enhancement than 100 μm fiber (blue). However, 400 μm fiber impinges on domains of other eye and leads to relative suppression (green). Right: actual data is consistent with prediction. (A–C from Cayce et al., 2011, D–F from Cayce et al., 2013).
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Figure 5: (A) Post-stimulus time histogram of neural response evoked by INS stimulation (gray bar). (B,C) Increased INS radiant exposure leads to an increase in intrinsic signal magnitude. (B) Time course of signal for different radiant exposures. (C) Radiant exposure vs. peak amplitude of the intrinsic signal. Relationship fit with a linear equation. (Laser parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 400 μm fiber; D,E) INS potentiates response to visual stimulation. (D) Red and blue outlines demarcate left and right: ocular dominance columns, respectively. Left: OD map generated by subtraction of left minus right eye. Right: INS applied to left eye column during visual stimulation leads to relative enhancement of left eye columns (darkening in red outlined areas) and relative suppression of right eye columns (lightening in blue outlined areas). Scale bar: 1 mm. (E) This is observed by examining averaged time courses from pixels in left eye (left panel, red arrow indicates increase in optical signal reflectance) and right eye (right panel, red arrow indicates decline in optical signal reflectance) columns. Dark gray bar: INS stimulation period. Light gray bar: visual stimulation period. Error bars: SEM. (INS parameters: λ = 1.875 μm, 1.3 J/cm2, 250 μs pulses at 200 Hz for 500 ms, 100 μm fiber). Y axis: dR/R. (F) Effect of fiber size. Left: Schematic displaying 100, 200, and 400 μm diameter fibers. Predicted intrinsic signal responses: 200 μm fiber (red) produces larger enhancement than 100 μm fiber (blue). However, 400 μm fiber impinges on domains of other eye and leads to relative suppression (green). Right: actual data is consistent with prediction. (A–C from Cayce et al., 2011, D–F from Cayce et al., 2013).
Mentions: Focal INS stimulation induces neural response as assessed with electrophysiology, optical imaging, and BOLD fMRI imaging. Magnitude of this response is related to the intensity of stimulation (Figures 5A–C). This focal stimulation can elicit functionally specific effects related to columnar organization. In visual cortex, application of focal stimulation to single ocular dominance columns in V1 can, in combination with visual stimulation, enhance response of shared eye ocular dominance columns (Figures 5D,E), suggesting a selective modulation of functionally specific intra-areal networks in V1. Similar modulatory results, by electrical stimulation, have been obtained by Ohayon et al. (2013).

Bottom Line: However, there has been little emphasis on understanding connection patterns between functionally specific cortical columns.These new approaches, when applied systematically on a large scale, will elucidate functionally specific intra-areal and inter-areal network connection patterns.Such functionally specific network data can provide accurate views of brain network topology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
There are currently largescale efforts to understand the brain as a connection machine. However, there has been little emphasis on understanding connection patterns between functionally specific cortical columns. Here, we review development and application of focal electrical and optical stimulation methods combined with optical imaging and fMRI mapping in the non-human primate. These new approaches, when applied systematically on a large scale, will elucidate functionally specific intra-areal and inter-areal network connection patterns. Such functionally specific network data can provide accurate views of brain network topology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus