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Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing.

Cao J, Gu R, Bi X, Zhu X, Wu H - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group.These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2).In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nursing, Harbin Medical University Daqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative - positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Grand averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) and topographic maps of the two feedback types for the social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy control (HC) groups over midline electrodes (FCz, Cz, CPz, and Pz).
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Figure 2: Grand averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) and topographic maps of the two feedback types for the social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy control (HC) groups over midline electrodes (FCz, Cz, CPz, and Pz).

Mentions: We were interested in the between-group difference on ERPs in both the positive and the negative feedback conditions. Therefore, we directly measured the FRN in grand-averaged waveforms rather than the difference waves between positive and negative trials. The grand-averaged ERPs at FCz and Pz and the corresponding topography map are presented in Figure 2. The P2 component was detected as a peak amplitude at C1, Cz, and C2 at 220-280 ms, since P2 then reached its maximum over these electrodes (see Figure 2). The P3 component was detected at three parietal electrodes (CP1, CPz, and CP2). The FRN was detected at three fronto-central electrodes (FC1, FCz, and FC2), which are usually used for FRN detection (Zottoli and Grose-Fifer, 2012; Luo et al., 2014). Visual observation of the topography map supported the above selections (see Figure 2). The original FRN amplitude was measured for each participant as the peak amplitude within the 280–340 ms window. However, considering that the P2 was also sensitive to negative vs. positive difference and group difference in our study, we used a peak-to-peak measurement here to eliminate the potential influence of P2 on the FRN (Ferdinand et al., 2012). Therefore, the reported FRN results are based on the difference of the FRN and P2 amplitudes. The P3 was identified as the average amplitude within the 340-450 ms window. To directly compare with the finding of Kujawa et al. (2014), we also analyzed the negative minus the positive amplitude difference (ΔFRN), in which more negative values reflect heightened reactivity to negative vs. positive feedback. The averaged P2, P3, and FRN amplitudes were entered into a 2 (feedback valence: positive vs. negative) × 2 (group: SAD vs. HC) analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, the ΔFRN was incorporated into a two-sample t-test with group as the between-subject variable. The reported degrees of freedom of the F-ratio were corrected by using the Greenhouse–Geisser method when the sphericity assumption was violated.


Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing.

Cao J, Gu R, Bi X, Zhu X, Wu H - Front Psychol (2015)

Grand averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) and topographic maps of the two feedback types for the social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy control (HC) groups over midline electrodes (FCz, Cz, CPz, and Pz).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644791&req=5

Figure 2: Grand averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) and topographic maps of the two feedback types for the social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy control (HC) groups over midline electrodes (FCz, Cz, CPz, and Pz).
Mentions: We were interested in the between-group difference on ERPs in both the positive and the negative feedback conditions. Therefore, we directly measured the FRN in grand-averaged waveforms rather than the difference waves between positive and negative trials. The grand-averaged ERPs at FCz and Pz and the corresponding topography map are presented in Figure 2. The P2 component was detected as a peak amplitude at C1, Cz, and C2 at 220-280 ms, since P2 then reached its maximum over these electrodes (see Figure 2). The P3 component was detected at three parietal electrodes (CP1, CPz, and CP2). The FRN was detected at three fronto-central electrodes (FC1, FCz, and FC2), which are usually used for FRN detection (Zottoli and Grose-Fifer, 2012; Luo et al., 2014). Visual observation of the topography map supported the above selections (see Figure 2). The original FRN amplitude was measured for each participant as the peak amplitude within the 280–340 ms window. However, considering that the P2 was also sensitive to negative vs. positive difference and group difference in our study, we used a peak-to-peak measurement here to eliminate the potential influence of P2 on the FRN (Ferdinand et al., 2012). Therefore, the reported FRN results are based on the difference of the FRN and P2 amplitudes. The P3 was identified as the average amplitude within the 340-450 ms window. To directly compare with the finding of Kujawa et al. (2014), we also analyzed the negative minus the positive amplitude difference (ΔFRN), in which more negative values reflect heightened reactivity to negative vs. positive feedback. The averaged P2, P3, and FRN amplitudes were entered into a 2 (feedback valence: positive vs. negative) × 2 (group: SAD vs. HC) analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, the ΔFRN was incorporated into a two-sample t-test with group as the between-subject variable. The reported degrees of freedom of the F-ratio were corrected by using the Greenhouse–Geisser method when the sphericity assumption was violated.

Bottom Line: Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group.These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2).In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nursing, Harbin Medical University Daqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative - positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus