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The Hippo/YAP pathway interacts with EGFR signaling and HPV oncoproteins to regulate cervical cancer progression.

He C, Mao D, Hua G, Lv X, Chen X, Angeletti PC, Dong J, Remmenga SW, Rodabaugh KJ, Zhou J, Lambert PF, Yang P, Davis JS, Wang C - EMBO Mol Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size and tumorigenesis through a kinase cascade that inactivates Yes-associated protein (YAP).Our results suggest that YAP expression is associated with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer.Our study indicates that combined targeting of the Hippo and the ERBB signaling pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Olson Center for Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

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YAP is involved in HPV-E6 regulation of cervical cancer cell growthEffect of recombinant HPV16 E6 protein on the proliferation of HT3 cells. Each point represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). ***P = 0.0001 compared with control (Ctrl) on day 4. HT3 cells were cultured in serum-reduced medium in the presence or absence of recombinant HPV16 E6 (400 nM).Recombinant HPV16 E6 protein increased YAP protein level, but had no effect on β-actin protein level in HT3 cells. Cell culture and treatment procedure are the same as described in (A).AREG mRNA levels in HT3 cells incubated for 48 h with or without recombinant HPV E6. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0042).Western blotting analysis showing the effect of HPV16 E6 (400 nM, 48 h) on YAP protein levels in HT3 cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCtrl) or YAP siRNA (siYAP).Effect of YAP on HPV16 E6 stimulation of HT3 cell proliferation. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA; siYAP: YAP siRNA; E6: 400 nM recombinant HPV16 E6, 48 h. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with the same letters are not significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siCtrl+E6, P = 0.0232; siCtrl+E6 vs. siYAP+E6, P = 0.0011).Knockdown of endogenous E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6 siRNA (siE6) reduced YAP protein in HeLa cells, while knockdown of YAP with YAP siRNA (siYAP) in these cells had no effect on the mRNA level of HPV18 E6. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA.Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed mRNA expression of AREG. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0181; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0005).Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed cell growth (n = 9, siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0002; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0004).Concentrations of AREG in the culture medium of HeLa cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCTRL) or HPV18 E6 siRNA (siHPV18E6). Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 6). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0461).Data information: Quantitative data in (A), (C), and (I) were analyzed for significance using unpaired t-test in GraphPad Prism 5 with Welch’s correction. Data in (E), (G), and (H) were analyzed for significance using one-way ANOVA in GraphPad Prism 5 with Tukey’s post hoc tests.
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fig09: YAP is involved in HPV-E6 regulation of cervical cancer cell growthEffect of recombinant HPV16 E6 protein on the proliferation of HT3 cells. Each point represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). ***P = 0.0001 compared with control (Ctrl) on day 4. HT3 cells were cultured in serum-reduced medium in the presence or absence of recombinant HPV16 E6 (400 nM).Recombinant HPV16 E6 protein increased YAP protein level, but had no effect on β-actin protein level in HT3 cells. Cell culture and treatment procedure are the same as described in (A).AREG mRNA levels in HT3 cells incubated for 48 h with or without recombinant HPV E6. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0042).Western blotting analysis showing the effect of HPV16 E6 (400 nM, 48 h) on YAP protein levels in HT3 cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCtrl) or YAP siRNA (siYAP).Effect of YAP on HPV16 E6 stimulation of HT3 cell proliferation. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA; siYAP: YAP siRNA; E6: 400 nM recombinant HPV16 E6, 48 h. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with the same letters are not significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siCtrl+E6, P = 0.0232; siCtrl+E6 vs. siYAP+E6, P = 0.0011).Knockdown of endogenous E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6 siRNA (siE6) reduced YAP protein in HeLa cells, while knockdown of YAP with YAP siRNA (siYAP) in these cells had no effect on the mRNA level of HPV18 E6. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA.Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed mRNA expression of AREG. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0181; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0005).Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed cell growth (n = 9, siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0002; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0004).Concentrations of AREG in the culture medium of HeLa cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCTRL) or HPV18 E6 siRNA (siHPV18E6). Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 6). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0461).Data information: Quantitative data in (A), (C), and (I) were analyzed for significance using unpaired t-test in GraphPad Prism 5 with Welch’s correction. Data in (E), (G), and (H) were analyzed for significance using one-way ANOVA in GraphPad Prism 5 with Tukey’s post hoc tests.

Mentions: Epidemiological studies have shown that the high-risk HPV E6/E7 protein plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of cervical cancer. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the ability of high-risk HPV E6/E7 to regulate cervical cancer is largely unknown. Treatment of HT3 cells (cervical cancer cells without HPV infection) (Fogh et al, 1977; Yee et al, 1985) with HPV16 E6 protein significantly increased cancer cell growth (Fig9A). Surprisingly, treatment of HT3 cells with HPV16 E6 increased protein levels of total YAP and phosphorylated YAP (Ser127), but had no effect on the protein level of β-actin (Fig9B). Real-time PCR results showed that treatment of HT3 cells with HPV16 E6 for 48 h also significantly increased mRNA level of AREG (Fig9C). This finding is consistent with the observed increase in YAP protein levels since AREG is downstream gene of the Hippo/YAP pathway. Knockdown of YAP with YAP siRNA eliminated HPV16 E6-stimulated HT3 cell proliferation (Fig9D and E), further suggesting that YAP is an important mediator of HPV16 E6 action in cervical cancer cells.


The Hippo/YAP pathway interacts with EGFR signaling and HPV oncoproteins to regulate cervical cancer progression.

He C, Mao D, Hua G, Lv X, Chen X, Angeletti PC, Dong J, Remmenga SW, Rodabaugh KJ, Zhou J, Lambert PF, Yang P, Davis JS, Wang C - EMBO Mol Med (2015)

YAP is involved in HPV-E6 regulation of cervical cancer cell growthEffect of recombinant HPV16 E6 protein on the proliferation of HT3 cells. Each point represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). ***P = 0.0001 compared with control (Ctrl) on day 4. HT3 cells were cultured in serum-reduced medium in the presence or absence of recombinant HPV16 E6 (400 nM).Recombinant HPV16 E6 protein increased YAP protein level, but had no effect on β-actin protein level in HT3 cells. Cell culture and treatment procedure are the same as described in (A).AREG mRNA levels in HT3 cells incubated for 48 h with or without recombinant HPV E6. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0042).Western blotting analysis showing the effect of HPV16 E6 (400 nM, 48 h) on YAP protein levels in HT3 cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCtrl) or YAP siRNA (siYAP).Effect of YAP on HPV16 E6 stimulation of HT3 cell proliferation. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA; siYAP: YAP siRNA; E6: 400 nM recombinant HPV16 E6, 48 h. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with the same letters are not significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siCtrl+E6, P = 0.0232; siCtrl+E6 vs. siYAP+E6, P = 0.0011).Knockdown of endogenous E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6 siRNA (siE6) reduced YAP protein in HeLa cells, while knockdown of YAP with YAP siRNA (siYAP) in these cells had no effect on the mRNA level of HPV18 E6. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA.Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed mRNA expression of AREG. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0181; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0005).Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed cell growth (n = 9, siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0002; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0004).Concentrations of AREG in the culture medium of HeLa cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCTRL) or HPV18 E6 siRNA (siHPV18E6). Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 6). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0461).Data information: Quantitative data in (A), (C), and (I) were analyzed for significance using unpaired t-test in GraphPad Prism 5 with Welch’s correction. Data in (E), (G), and (H) were analyzed for significance using one-way ANOVA in GraphPad Prism 5 with Tukey’s post hoc tests.
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fig09: YAP is involved in HPV-E6 regulation of cervical cancer cell growthEffect of recombinant HPV16 E6 protein on the proliferation of HT3 cells. Each point represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). ***P = 0.0001 compared with control (Ctrl) on day 4. HT3 cells were cultured in serum-reduced medium in the presence or absence of recombinant HPV16 E6 (400 nM).Recombinant HPV16 E6 protein increased YAP protein level, but had no effect on β-actin protein level in HT3 cells. Cell culture and treatment procedure are the same as described in (A).AREG mRNA levels in HT3 cells incubated for 48 h with or without recombinant HPV E6. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 5). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0042).Western blotting analysis showing the effect of HPV16 E6 (400 nM, 48 h) on YAP protein levels in HT3 cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCtrl) or YAP siRNA (siYAP).Effect of YAP on HPV16 E6 stimulation of HT3 cell proliferation. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA; siYAP: YAP siRNA; E6: 400 nM recombinant HPV16 E6, 48 h. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with the same letters are not significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siCtrl+E6, P = 0.0232; siCtrl+E6 vs. siYAP+E6, P = 0.0011).Knockdown of endogenous E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6 siRNA (siE6) reduced YAP protein in HeLa cells, while knockdown of YAP with YAP siRNA (siYAP) in these cells had no effect on the mRNA level of HPV18 E6. siCtrl: non-targeting control siRNA.Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed mRNA expression of AREG. Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 4). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0181; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0005).Knockdown of endogenous HPV18 E6 in HeLa cells with HPV18 E6-specific siRNA (siE6) significantly suppressed cell growth (n = 9, siCtrl vs. siHPV18E6, P = 0.0002; siCtrl vs. siYAP, P = 0.0004).Concentrations of AREG in the culture medium of HeLa cells transfected with non-targeting control siRNA (siCTRL) or HPV18 E6 siRNA (siHPV18E6). Each bar represents mean ± SEM (n = 6). Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (P = 0.0461).Data information: Quantitative data in (A), (C), and (I) were analyzed for significance using unpaired t-test in GraphPad Prism 5 with Welch’s correction. Data in (E), (G), and (H) were analyzed for significance using one-way ANOVA in GraphPad Prism 5 with Tukey’s post hoc tests.
Mentions: Epidemiological studies have shown that the high-risk HPV E6/E7 protein plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of cervical cancer. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the ability of high-risk HPV E6/E7 to regulate cervical cancer is largely unknown. Treatment of HT3 cells (cervical cancer cells without HPV infection) (Fogh et al, 1977; Yee et al, 1985) with HPV16 E6 protein significantly increased cancer cell growth (Fig9A). Surprisingly, treatment of HT3 cells with HPV16 E6 increased protein levels of total YAP and phosphorylated YAP (Ser127), but had no effect on the protein level of β-actin (Fig9B). Real-time PCR results showed that treatment of HT3 cells with HPV16 E6 for 48 h also significantly increased mRNA level of AREG (Fig9C). This finding is consistent with the observed increase in YAP protein levels since AREG is downstream gene of the Hippo/YAP pathway. Knockdown of YAP with YAP siRNA eliminated HPV16 E6-stimulated HT3 cell proliferation (Fig9D and E), further suggesting that YAP is an important mediator of HPV16 E6 action in cervical cancer cells.

Bottom Line: The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size and tumorigenesis through a kinase cascade that inactivates Yes-associated protein (YAP).Our results suggest that YAP expression is associated with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer.Our study indicates that combined targeting of the Hippo and the ERBB signaling pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Olson Center for Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus