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Urban-rural differences in daily time-activity patterns, occupational activity and housing characteristics.

Matz CJ, Stieb DM, Brion O - Environ Health (2015)

Bottom Line: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences.Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Air Health Effects Assessment Division, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave W, PL 4903C, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada. carlyn.matz@hc-sc.gc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences. We examined differences between urban and rural Canadians using data from the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2.

Methods: Data were collected from 1460 respondents in two rural areas (Haldimand-Norfolk, Ontario and Annapolis Valley-Kings County, Nova Scotia) and 3551 respondents in five urban areas (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax) using a 24-h recall diary and supplementary questionnaires administered using computer-assisted telephone interviews. We evaluated differences in time-activity patterns, occupational activity, and housing characteristics between rural and urban populations using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for design as well as demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Taylor linearization method and design-adjusted Wald tests were used to test statistical significance.

Results: After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, rural children, adults and seniors spent on average 0.7 (p < 0.05), 1.2 (p < 0.001), and 0.9 (p < 0.001) more hours outdoors per day respectively than urban counterparts. 23.1 % (95 % CI: 19.0-27.2 %) of urban and 37.8 % (95 % CI: 31.2-44.4 %) of rural employed populations reported working outdoors and the distributions of job skill level and industry differed significantly (p < 0.001) between urban and rural residents. In particular, 11.4 % of rural residents vs. 4.9 % of urban residents were employed in unskilled jobs, and 11.5 % of rural residents vs. <0.5 % of urban residents were employ in primary industry. Rural residents were also more likely than urban residents to report spending time near gas or diesel powered equipment other than vehicles (16.9 % vs. 5.2 %, p < 0.001), more likely to report wood as a heating fuel (9.8 % vs. <0.1 %; p < 0.001 for difference in distribution of heating fuels), less likely to have an air conditioner (43.0 % vs. 57.2 %, p < 0.001), and more likely to smoke (29.1 % vs. 19.0 %, p < 0.001). Private wells were the main water source in rural areas (68.6 %) in contrast to public water systems (97.6 %) in urban areas (p < 0.001). Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.

Conclusions: We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence of potential exposures to environmental pollutants among urban and rural populations. Bars represent population weighted estimates ± 95 % CI. Difference between urban and rural is significant (***p < 0.001). aHigh sampling variability, interpret with caution
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Fig4: Prevalence of potential exposures to environmental pollutants among urban and rural populations. Bars represent population weighted estimates ± 95 % CI. Difference between urban and rural is significant (***p < 0.001). aHigh sampling variability, interpret with caution

Mentions: Other differences in urban and rural activities may also lead to differential exposure to various sources of environmental contaminants (Fig. 4 and Table 2). The rural population more frequently reported spending time near gas or diesel powered equipment, excluding vehicles, (16.9 %) compared to the urban population (5.2 %) (p < 0.001); this difference was maintained with adjustment for education, gender, age and SES. A difference was also noted for smoking in the household, with a greater prevalence of smoking in rural (29.1 %) than urban homes (19.0 %) (unadjusted and adjusted for SES p < 0.001). Neither group had a high prevalence of exposure to solvents, fumes, or strong smelling chemicals (11.3 % and 15.3 % for urban and rural, respectively; p > 0.05). Pesticide usage during the summer was more frequent in rural than urban populations (unadjusted p = 0.040). Additionally, more urban respondents (43.1 %) indicated they did not personally apply pesticides (i.e. were applied professionally) compared to rural respondents (27.3 %), although this difference was also not statistically significant.Fig. 4


Urban-rural differences in daily time-activity patterns, occupational activity and housing characteristics.

Matz CJ, Stieb DM, Brion O - Environ Health (2015)

Prevalence of potential exposures to environmental pollutants among urban and rural populations. Bars represent population weighted estimates ± 95 % CI. Difference between urban and rural is significant (***p < 0.001). aHigh sampling variability, interpret with caution
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644325&req=5

Fig4: Prevalence of potential exposures to environmental pollutants among urban and rural populations. Bars represent population weighted estimates ± 95 % CI. Difference between urban and rural is significant (***p < 0.001). aHigh sampling variability, interpret with caution
Mentions: Other differences in urban and rural activities may also lead to differential exposure to various sources of environmental contaminants (Fig. 4 and Table 2). The rural population more frequently reported spending time near gas or diesel powered equipment, excluding vehicles, (16.9 %) compared to the urban population (5.2 %) (p < 0.001); this difference was maintained with adjustment for education, gender, age and SES. A difference was also noted for smoking in the household, with a greater prevalence of smoking in rural (29.1 %) than urban homes (19.0 %) (unadjusted and adjusted for SES p < 0.001). Neither group had a high prevalence of exposure to solvents, fumes, or strong smelling chemicals (11.3 % and 15.3 % for urban and rural, respectively; p > 0.05). Pesticide usage during the summer was more frequent in rural than urban populations (unadjusted p = 0.040). Additionally, more urban respondents (43.1 %) indicated they did not personally apply pesticides (i.e. were applied professionally) compared to rural respondents (27.3 %), although this difference was also not statistically significant.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences.Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Air Health Effects Assessment Division, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave W, PL 4903C, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada. carlyn.matz@hc-sc.gc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences. We examined differences between urban and rural Canadians using data from the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2.

Methods: Data were collected from 1460 respondents in two rural areas (Haldimand-Norfolk, Ontario and Annapolis Valley-Kings County, Nova Scotia) and 3551 respondents in five urban areas (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax) using a 24-h recall diary and supplementary questionnaires administered using computer-assisted telephone interviews. We evaluated differences in time-activity patterns, occupational activity, and housing characteristics between rural and urban populations using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for design as well as demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Taylor linearization method and design-adjusted Wald tests were used to test statistical significance.

Results: After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, rural children, adults and seniors spent on average 0.7 (p < 0.05), 1.2 (p < 0.001), and 0.9 (p < 0.001) more hours outdoors per day respectively than urban counterparts. 23.1 % (95 % CI: 19.0-27.2 %) of urban and 37.8 % (95 % CI: 31.2-44.4 %) of rural employed populations reported working outdoors and the distributions of job skill level and industry differed significantly (p < 0.001) between urban and rural residents. In particular, 11.4 % of rural residents vs. 4.9 % of urban residents were employed in unskilled jobs, and 11.5 % of rural residents vs. <0.5 % of urban residents were employ in primary industry. Rural residents were also more likely than urban residents to report spending time near gas or diesel powered equipment other than vehicles (16.9 % vs. 5.2 %, p < 0.001), more likely to report wood as a heating fuel (9.8 % vs. <0.1 %; p < 0.001 for difference in distribution of heating fuels), less likely to have an air conditioner (43.0 % vs. 57.2 %, p < 0.001), and more likely to smoke (29.1 % vs. 19.0 %, p < 0.001). Private wells were the main water source in rural areas (68.6 %) in contrast to public water systems (97.6 %) in urban areas (p < 0.001). Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.

Conclusions: We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus