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Urban-rural differences in daily time-activity patterns, occupational activity and housing characteristics.

Matz CJ, Stieb DM, Brion O - Environ Health (2015)

Bottom Line: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences.Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Air Health Effects Assessment Division, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave W, PL 4903C, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada. carlyn.matz@hc-sc.gc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences. We examined differences between urban and rural Canadians using data from the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2.

Methods: Data were collected from 1460 respondents in two rural areas (Haldimand-Norfolk, Ontario and Annapolis Valley-Kings County, Nova Scotia) and 3551 respondents in five urban areas (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax) using a 24-h recall diary and supplementary questionnaires administered using computer-assisted telephone interviews. We evaluated differences in time-activity patterns, occupational activity, and housing characteristics between rural and urban populations using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for design as well as demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Taylor linearization method and design-adjusted Wald tests were used to test statistical significance.

Results: After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, rural children, adults and seniors spent on average 0.7 (p < 0.05), 1.2 (p < 0.001), and 0.9 (p < 0.001) more hours outdoors per day respectively than urban counterparts. 23.1 % (95 % CI: 19.0-27.2 %) of urban and 37.8 % (95 % CI: 31.2-44.4 %) of rural employed populations reported working outdoors and the distributions of job skill level and industry differed significantly (p < 0.001) between urban and rural residents. In particular, 11.4 % of rural residents vs. 4.9 % of urban residents were employed in unskilled jobs, and 11.5 % of rural residents vs. <0.5 % of urban residents were employ in primary industry. Rural residents were also more likely than urban residents to report spending time near gas or diesel powered equipment other than vehicles (16.9 % vs. 5.2 %, p < 0.001), more likely to report wood as a heating fuel (9.8 % vs. <0.1 %; p < 0.001 for difference in distribution of heating fuels), less likely to have an air conditioner (43.0 % vs. 57.2 %, p < 0.001), and more likely to smoke (29.1 % vs. 19.0 %, p < 0.001). Private wells were the main water source in rural areas (68.6 %) in contrast to public water systems (97.6 %) in urban areas (p < 0.001). Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.

Conclusions: We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-activity patterns for urban and rural populations by age group. Bars represent population weighted estimates. Note: a minimum of 60 % of average daily time was spent indoors at home
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Fig1: Time-activity patterns for urban and rural populations by age group. Bars represent population weighted estimates. Note: a minimum of 60 % of average daily time was spent indoors at home

Mentions: For each age group, urban and rural populations reported spending a majority of daily time (>15 h/day) indoors at home (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Significant differences between the time that urban and rural residents spent outdoors were noted for children (5–11 yrs; p = 0.025), adults (20–59 yrs; p < 0.001), and seniors (60+ yrs; p < 0.001). Rural children, adults and seniors reported spending on average 0.7, 1.2, and 0.9 h more outdoors, respectively. The increase in daily time spent outdoors by the rural population corresponded to a decrease in daily time spent in other indoor locations for adults (p = 0.005) and seniors (p = 0.002), compared to those living in urban areas. Small but non-significant increases in time spent in vehicles were noted for rural vs. urban populations for each age group (except 1–4 yrs), despite potentially longer commute distances for school, work, and shopping activities.Fig. 1


Urban-rural differences in daily time-activity patterns, occupational activity and housing characteristics.

Matz CJ, Stieb DM, Brion O - Environ Health (2015)

Time-activity patterns for urban and rural populations by age group. Bars represent population weighted estimates. Note: a minimum of 60 % of average daily time was spent indoors at home
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644325&req=5

Fig1: Time-activity patterns for urban and rural populations by age group. Bars represent population weighted estimates. Note: a minimum of 60 % of average daily time was spent indoors at home
Mentions: For each age group, urban and rural populations reported spending a majority of daily time (>15 h/day) indoors at home (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Significant differences between the time that urban and rural residents spent outdoors were noted for children (5–11 yrs; p = 0.025), adults (20–59 yrs; p < 0.001), and seniors (60+ yrs; p < 0.001). Rural children, adults and seniors reported spending on average 0.7, 1.2, and 0.9 h more outdoors, respectively. The increase in daily time spent outdoors by the rural population corresponded to a decrease in daily time spent in other indoor locations for adults (p = 0.005) and seniors (p = 0.002), compared to those living in urban areas. Small but non-significant increases in time spent in vehicles were noted for rural vs. urban populations for each age group (except 1–4 yrs), despite potentially longer commute distances for school, work, and shopping activities.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences.Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Air Health Effects Assessment Division, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave W, PL 4903C, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada. carlyn.matz@hc-sc.gc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences. We examined differences between urban and rural Canadians using data from the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2.

Methods: Data were collected from 1460 respondents in two rural areas (Haldimand-Norfolk, Ontario and Annapolis Valley-Kings County, Nova Scotia) and 3551 respondents in five urban areas (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax) using a 24-h recall diary and supplementary questionnaires administered using computer-assisted telephone interviews. We evaluated differences in time-activity patterns, occupational activity, and housing characteristics between rural and urban populations using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for design as well as demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Taylor linearization method and design-adjusted Wald tests were used to test statistical significance.

Results: After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, rural children, adults and seniors spent on average 0.7 (p < 0.05), 1.2 (p < 0.001), and 0.9 (p < 0.001) more hours outdoors per day respectively than urban counterparts. 23.1 % (95 % CI: 19.0-27.2 %) of urban and 37.8 % (95 % CI: 31.2-44.4 %) of rural employed populations reported working outdoors and the distributions of job skill level and industry differed significantly (p < 0.001) between urban and rural residents. In particular, 11.4 % of rural residents vs. 4.9 % of urban residents were employed in unskilled jobs, and 11.5 % of rural residents vs. <0.5 % of urban residents were employ in primary industry. Rural residents were also more likely than urban residents to report spending time near gas or diesel powered equipment other than vehicles (16.9 % vs. 5.2 %, p < 0.001), more likely to report wood as a heating fuel (9.8 % vs. <0.1 %; p < 0.001 for difference in distribution of heating fuels), less likely to have an air conditioner (43.0 % vs. 57.2 %, p < 0.001), and more likely to smoke (29.1 % vs. 19.0 %, p < 0.001). Private wells were the main water source in rural areas (68.6 %) in contrast to public water systems (97.6 %) in urban areas (p < 0.001). Despite these differences, no differences in self-reported health status were observed between urban and rural residents.

Conclusions: We identified a number of differences between urban and rural residents, which provide evidence pertinent to the urban-rural health disparity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus