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Feline calicivirus and other respiratory pathogens in cats with Feline calicivirus-related symptoms and in clinically healthy cats in Switzerland.

Berger A, Willi B, Meli ML, Boretti FS, Hartnack S, Dreyfus A, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Oral ulcerations, salivation, gingivitis and stomatitis, but not classical signs of URTD were significantly associated with FCV infection (all p < 0.001).For a clinical diagnosis, FCV-related symptoms should be revisited.To reduce FCV-related problems in multi-cat environments, reduction of group size in addition to the generally recommended vaccination are advocated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Laboratory, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. aberger@vetclinics.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cats with feline calicivirus (FCV)-related symptoms are commonly presented to veterinary practitioners. Various clinical manifestations have been attributed to FCV, i.e. upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), oral ulcerations, gingivostomatitis, limping syndrome and virulent systemic disease. Additionally, healthy cats can shed FCV. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the frequency of FCV in cats with FCV-related symptoms and in healthy cats in Switzerland, 2) to assess risk and protective factors for infection, such as signalment, housing conditions, vaccination, and co-infection with URTD-associated pathogens, and 3) to address the association between clinical symptoms and FCV infection.

Results: Oropharyngeal, nasal and conjunctival swabs were collected in 24 veterinary practices from 200 FCV-suspect and 100 healthy cats originating from 19 cantons of Switzerland. The samples were tested for FCV using virus isolation and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, Bordetella bronchiseptica using real-time qPCR. Within the two populations (FCV-suspect/healthy), the observed PCR prevalences were: FCV 45 %/8 %, FHV-1 20 %/9 %, C. felis 8 %/1 %, B. bronchiseptica 4 %/2 %, M. felis 47 %/31 % and any co-infections thereof 40 %/14 %. Based on multivariable regression models amongst FCV-suspect cats (odds ratio [95 % confidence interval]), co-infection with M. felis (1.75 [0.97; 3.14]), group housing (2.11 [1.02; 4.34]) and intact reproductive status (1.80 [0.99; 3.28]) were found to be risk factors for FCV infection. In healthy cats, intact reproductive status (22.2 [1.85; 266.7]) and group housing (46.4 [5.70; 377.7]) were found to be associated with FCV infection. Based on an univariable approach, FCV-suspect cats were found to be significantly less often FCV-positive when vaccinated (0.48 [0.24; 0.94]). Oral ulcerations, salivation, gingivitis and stomatitis, but not classical signs of URTD were significantly associated with FCV infection (all p < 0.001).

Conclusions: FCV was detected in less than half of the cats that were judged FCV-suspect by veterinary practitioners. For a clinical diagnosis, FCV-related symptoms should be revisited. FCV infection was present in some healthy cats, underlining the importance of asymptomatic carriers in FCV epidemiology. To reduce FCV-related problems in multi-cat environments, reduction of group size in addition to the generally recommended vaccination are advocated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of FCV loads in the swab/cytobrush samples from FCV-suspect cats and the healthy cats. Loads are given as CT values from the real-time RT-qPCR S1 assay and are depicted as boxplots. A low CT value corresponds to a high load. Of note, the measurements are semi-quantitative because of the collection procedure (cytobrushes and swabs)
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Fig2: Comparison of FCV loads in the swab/cytobrush samples from FCV-suspect cats and the healthy cats. Loads are given as CT values from the real-time RT-qPCR S1 assay and are depicted as boxplots. A low CT value corresponds to a high load. Of note, the measurements are semi-quantitative because of the collection procedure (cytobrushes and swabs)

Mentions: The clinical signs in the 200 cats chosen by the veterinary practitioners because of FCV-related symptoms are shown in Table 4. In approximately half of the FCV-suspect cats, gingivitis or classical signs of URTD, such as nasal discharge, ocular discharge, conjunctivitis and sneezing were present. Approximately one third of the cats exhibited stomatitis or caudal stomatitis, about 10 % demonstrated oral or lingual ulceration and only a few were found with swollen joints, lameness, skin ulcerations or cutaneous edema. Gingivitis, stomatitis, caudal stomatitis, salivation and oral and lingual ulcerations were significantly associated with FCV infection (Table 4). In contrast, nasal and ocular discharge and sneezing were significantly less common in the FCV PCR-positive than in the FCV PCR-negative cats. When the FCV load in the sample material was compared between FCV-positive diseased and FCV-positive healthy cats, the FCV loads were higher in the diseased cats, although statistical significance was not reached (FCV S1 RT-qPCR; pMWU = 0.07; Fig. 2).Table 4


Feline calicivirus and other respiratory pathogens in cats with Feline calicivirus-related symptoms and in clinically healthy cats in Switzerland.

Berger A, Willi B, Meli ML, Boretti FS, Hartnack S, Dreyfus A, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Comparison of FCV loads in the swab/cytobrush samples from FCV-suspect cats and the healthy cats. Loads are given as CT values from the real-time RT-qPCR S1 assay and are depicted as boxplots. A low CT value corresponds to a high load. Of note, the measurements are semi-quantitative because of the collection procedure (cytobrushes and swabs)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644299&req=5

Fig2: Comparison of FCV loads in the swab/cytobrush samples from FCV-suspect cats and the healthy cats. Loads are given as CT values from the real-time RT-qPCR S1 assay and are depicted as boxplots. A low CT value corresponds to a high load. Of note, the measurements are semi-quantitative because of the collection procedure (cytobrushes and swabs)
Mentions: The clinical signs in the 200 cats chosen by the veterinary practitioners because of FCV-related symptoms are shown in Table 4. In approximately half of the FCV-suspect cats, gingivitis or classical signs of URTD, such as nasal discharge, ocular discharge, conjunctivitis and sneezing were present. Approximately one third of the cats exhibited stomatitis or caudal stomatitis, about 10 % demonstrated oral or lingual ulceration and only a few were found with swollen joints, lameness, skin ulcerations or cutaneous edema. Gingivitis, stomatitis, caudal stomatitis, salivation and oral and lingual ulcerations were significantly associated with FCV infection (Table 4). In contrast, nasal and ocular discharge and sneezing were significantly less common in the FCV PCR-positive than in the FCV PCR-negative cats. When the FCV load in the sample material was compared between FCV-positive diseased and FCV-positive healthy cats, the FCV loads were higher in the diseased cats, although statistical significance was not reached (FCV S1 RT-qPCR; pMWU = 0.07; Fig. 2).Table 4

Bottom Line: Oral ulcerations, salivation, gingivitis and stomatitis, but not classical signs of URTD were significantly associated with FCV infection (all p < 0.001).For a clinical diagnosis, FCV-related symptoms should be revisited.To reduce FCV-related problems in multi-cat environments, reduction of group size in addition to the generally recommended vaccination are advocated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Laboratory, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. aberger@vetclinics.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cats with feline calicivirus (FCV)-related symptoms are commonly presented to veterinary practitioners. Various clinical manifestations have been attributed to FCV, i.e. upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), oral ulcerations, gingivostomatitis, limping syndrome and virulent systemic disease. Additionally, healthy cats can shed FCV. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the frequency of FCV in cats with FCV-related symptoms and in healthy cats in Switzerland, 2) to assess risk and protective factors for infection, such as signalment, housing conditions, vaccination, and co-infection with URTD-associated pathogens, and 3) to address the association between clinical symptoms and FCV infection.

Results: Oropharyngeal, nasal and conjunctival swabs were collected in 24 veterinary practices from 200 FCV-suspect and 100 healthy cats originating from 19 cantons of Switzerland. The samples were tested for FCV using virus isolation and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, Bordetella bronchiseptica using real-time qPCR. Within the two populations (FCV-suspect/healthy), the observed PCR prevalences were: FCV 45 %/8 %, FHV-1 20 %/9 %, C. felis 8 %/1 %, B. bronchiseptica 4 %/2 %, M. felis 47 %/31 % and any co-infections thereof 40 %/14 %. Based on multivariable regression models amongst FCV-suspect cats (odds ratio [95 % confidence interval]), co-infection with M. felis (1.75 [0.97; 3.14]), group housing (2.11 [1.02; 4.34]) and intact reproductive status (1.80 [0.99; 3.28]) were found to be risk factors for FCV infection. In healthy cats, intact reproductive status (22.2 [1.85; 266.7]) and group housing (46.4 [5.70; 377.7]) were found to be associated with FCV infection. Based on an univariable approach, FCV-suspect cats were found to be significantly less often FCV-positive when vaccinated (0.48 [0.24; 0.94]). Oral ulcerations, salivation, gingivitis and stomatitis, but not classical signs of URTD were significantly associated with FCV infection (all p < 0.001).

Conclusions: FCV was detected in less than half of the cats that were judged FCV-suspect by veterinary practitioners. For a clinical diagnosis, FCV-related symptoms should be revisited. FCV infection was present in some healthy cats, underlining the importance of asymptomatic carriers in FCV epidemiology. To reduce FCV-related problems in multi-cat environments, reduction of group size in addition to the generally recommended vaccination are advocated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus