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"Slow" skeletal muscles across vertebrate species.

Luna VM, Daikoku E, Ono F - Cell Biosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Skeletal muscle fibers are generally classified into two groups: slow (type I) and fast (type II).In this review, we will focus on the current concept of slow muscle fibers which, unlike the originally proposed version based purely on amphibian muscles, varies widely depending on the animal model system studied.We will discuss recent findings from zebrafish neuromuscular junction synapses that may provide the framework for establishing a more unified view of slow muscles across mammalian and non-mammalian species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 USA.

ABSTRACT
Skeletal muscle fibers are generally classified into two groups: slow (type I) and fast (type II). Fibers in each group are uniquely designed for specific locomotory needs based on their intrinsic cellular properties and the types of motor neurons that innervate them. In this review, we will focus on the current concept of slow muscle fibers which, unlike the originally proposed version based purely on amphibian muscles, varies widely depending on the animal model system studied. We will discuss recent findings from zebrafish neuromuscular junction synapses that may provide the framework for establishing a more unified view of slow muscles across mammalian and non-mammalian species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a Slow fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are found directly underneath the skin. Synapses (shown in red) are found at the chevron-shaped body segment boundaries. At the individual fiber level, these synapses are at the distal edges. AChR pentamers found in these synapses do not include the λ or ε subunit, and generate currents with slow decay kinetics. b Fast fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are located in layers deeper than slow fibers. Synapses (red) can be observed as round spots in each fiber. AChRs contain λ or ε subunit (yellow) and generate fast synaptic current kinetics
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Fig2: a Slow fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are found directly underneath the skin. Synapses (shown in red) are found at the chevron-shaped body segment boundaries. At the individual fiber level, these synapses are at the distal edges. AChR pentamers found in these synapses do not include the λ or ε subunit, and generate currents with slow decay kinetics. b Fast fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are located in layers deeper than slow fibers. Synapses (red) can be observed as round spots in each fiber. AChRs contain λ or ε subunit (yellow) and generate fast synaptic current kinetics

Mentions: The zebrafish is an animal model system widely used for biomedical research. Anatomical, developmental, physiological, and molecular information about this system makes it ideal for studying muscle fiber types. In developing zebrafish embryos, slow fibers initially differentiate as adaxial muscles in the innermost layer of the skeletal muscle near the notochord around 13 h postfertilization (hpf), then migrate outward as the animal develops [31]. They then settle and form a single superficial layer of muscle fibers directly underneath the skin (Fig. 2). In contrast, fast fibers form multiple deeper layers, thereby constituting the bulk of the trunk.Fig. 2


"Slow" skeletal muscles across vertebrate species.

Luna VM, Daikoku E, Ono F - Cell Biosci (2015)

a Slow fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are found directly underneath the skin. Synapses (shown in red) are found at the chevron-shaped body segment boundaries. At the individual fiber level, these synapses are at the distal edges. AChR pentamers found in these synapses do not include the λ or ε subunit, and generate currents with slow decay kinetics. b Fast fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are located in layers deeper than slow fibers. Synapses (red) can be observed as round spots in each fiber. AChRs contain λ or ε subunit (yellow) and generate fast synaptic current kinetics
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644285&req=5

Fig2: a Slow fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are found directly underneath the skin. Synapses (shown in red) are found at the chevron-shaped body segment boundaries. At the individual fiber level, these synapses are at the distal edges. AChR pentamers found in these synapses do not include the λ or ε subunit, and generate currents with slow decay kinetics. b Fast fibers (a single fiber shown in blue) are located in layers deeper than slow fibers. Synapses (red) can be observed as round spots in each fiber. AChRs contain λ or ε subunit (yellow) and generate fast synaptic current kinetics
Mentions: The zebrafish is an animal model system widely used for biomedical research. Anatomical, developmental, physiological, and molecular information about this system makes it ideal for studying muscle fiber types. In developing zebrafish embryos, slow fibers initially differentiate as adaxial muscles in the innermost layer of the skeletal muscle near the notochord around 13 h postfertilization (hpf), then migrate outward as the animal develops [31]. They then settle and form a single superficial layer of muscle fibers directly underneath the skin (Fig. 2). In contrast, fast fibers form multiple deeper layers, thereby constituting the bulk of the trunk.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Skeletal muscle fibers are generally classified into two groups: slow (type I) and fast (type II).In this review, we will focus on the current concept of slow muscle fibers which, unlike the originally proposed version based purely on amphibian muscles, varies widely depending on the animal model system studied.We will discuss recent findings from zebrafish neuromuscular junction synapses that may provide the framework for establishing a more unified view of slow muscles across mammalian and non-mammalian species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 USA.

ABSTRACT
Skeletal muscle fibers are generally classified into two groups: slow (type I) and fast (type II). Fibers in each group are uniquely designed for specific locomotory needs based on their intrinsic cellular properties and the types of motor neurons that innervate them. In this review, we will focus on the current concept of slow muscle fibers which, unlike the originally proposed version based purely on amphibian muscles, varies widely depending on the animal model system studied. We will discuss recent findings from zebrafish neuromuscular junction synapses that may provide the framework for establishing a more unified view of slow muscles across mammalian and non-mammalian species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus