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Early divergent strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 years ago.

Rasmussen S, Allentoft ME, Nielsen K, Orlando L, Sikora M, Sjögren KG, Pedersen AG, Schubert M, Van Dam A, Kapel CM, Nielsen HB, Brunak S, Avetisyan P, Epimakhov A, Khalyapin MV, Gnuni A, Kriiska A, Lasak I, Metspalu M, Moiseyev V, Gromov A, Pokutta D, Saag L, Varul L, Yepiskoposyan L, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Foley RA, Lahr MM, Nielsen R, Kristiansen K, Willerslev E - Cell (2015)

Bottom Line: How and when it originated remains contentious.We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague.Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 208, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

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Schematic of Y. pestis EvolutionRepresentation of Y. pestis phylogeny and important evolutionary events since divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Genetic gains (blue) and genetic loss or loss of function mutations (red) are indicated by arrows. Historical recorded pandemics are indicated in blue text. The calendric years indicates the primary outbreak of the Pandemic. Node dates are median divergence times from the BEAST analysis. The events are based on information from this study and Sun et al., 2014. We used the VCFs generated from all Y. pestis samples (n = 142) (Table S2) to verify on which branches the genetic events occurred. The figure is based on current knowledge and is subject to change with addition of new samples. See also Figure S5 and Table S5. BA: Bronze Age, CHN: China, FSU: Former Soviet Union, AFR: Africa, GER: Germany, MON: Mongolia, IRN: Iran, ENG: England, flea tran: flea transmission, mut.: mutation.
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fig6: Schematic of Y. pestis EvolutionRepresentation of Y. pestis phylogeny and important evolutionary events since divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Genetic gains (blue) and genetic loss or loss of function mutations (red) are indicated by arrows. Historical recorded pandemics are indicated in blue text. The calendric years indicates the primary outbreak of the Pandemic. Node dates are median divergence times from the BEAST analysis. The events are based on information from this study and Sun et al., 2014. We used the VCFs generated from all Y. pestis samples (n = 142) (Table S2) to verify on which branches the genetic events occurred. The figure is based on current knowledge and is subject to change with addition of new samples. See also Figure S5 and Table S5. BA: Bronze Age, CHN: China, FSU: Former Soviet Union, AFR: Africa, GER: Germany, MON: Mongolia, IRN: Iran, ENG: England, flea tran: flea transmission, mut.: mutation.

Mentions: Our calibrated molecular clock pushes the divergence dates for the early branching of Y. pestis back to 5,783 years ago, an additional 2,000 years compared to previous findings (Table S5, Figure S5) (Cui et al., 2013, Morelli et al., 2010). Furthermore, using the temporally stamped ancient DNA data, we are able to derive a time series for the molecular acquisition of the pathogenicity elements and immune avoidance systems that facilitated the evolution from a less virulent bacteria with zoonotic potential, such as Y. pseudotuberculosis, to one of the most deadly bacteria ever encountered by humans (Figure 6).


Early divergent strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 years ago.

Rasmussen S, Allentoft ME, Nielsen K, Orlando L, Sikora M, Sjögren KG, Pedersen AG, Schubert M, Van Dam A, Kapel CM, Nielsen HB, Brunak S, Avetisyan P, Epimakhov A, Khalyapin MV, Gnuni A, Kriiska A, Lasak I, Metspalu M, Moiseyev V, Gromov A, Pokutta D, Saag L, Varul L, Yepiskoposyan L, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Foley RA, Lahr MM, Nielsen R, Kristiansen K, Willerslev E - Cell (2015)

Schematic of Y. pestis EvolutionRepresentation of Y. pestis phylogeny and important evolutionary events since divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Genetic gains (blue) and genetic loss or loss of function mutations (red) are indicated by arrows. Historical recorded pandemics are indicated in blue text. The calendric years indicates the primary outbreak of the Pandemic. Node dates are median divergence times from the BEAST analysis. The events are based on information from this study and Sun et al., 2014. We used the VCFs generated from all Y. pestis samples (n = 142) (Table S2) to verify on which branches the genetic events occurred. The figure is based on current knowledge and is subject to change with addition of new samples. See also Figure S5 and Table S5. BA: Bronze Age, CHN: China, FSU: Former Soviet Union, AFR: Africa, GER: Germany, MON: Mongolia, IRN: Iran, ENG: England, flea tran: flea transmission, mut.: mutation.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644222&req=5

fig6: Schematic of Y. pestis EvolutionRepresentation of Y. pestis phylogeny and important evolutionary events since divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Genetic gains (blue) and genetic loss or loss of function mutations (red) are indicated by arrows. Historical recorded pandemics are indicated in blue text. The calendric years indicates the primary outbreak of the Pandemic. Node dates are median divergence times from the BEAST analysis. The events are based on information from this study and Sun et al., 2014. We used the VCFs generated from all Y. pestis samples (n = 142) (Table S2) to verify on which branches the genetic events occurred. The figure is based on current knowledge and is subject to change with addition of new samples. See also Figure S5 and Table S5. BA: Bronze Age, CHN: China, FSU: Former Soviet Union, AFR: Africa, GER: Germany, MON: Mongolia, IRN: Iran, ENG: England, flea tran: flea transmission, mut.: mutation.
Mentions: Our calibrated molecular clock pushes the divergence dates for the early branching of Y. pestis back to 5,783 years ago, an additional 2,000 years compared to previous findings (Table S5, Figure S5) (Cui et al., 2013, Morelli et al., 2010). Furthermore, using the temporally stamped ancient DNA data, we are able to derive a time series for the molecular acquisition of the pathogenicity elements and immune avoidance systems that facilitated the evolution from a less virulent bacteria with zoonotic potential, such as Y. pseudotuberculosis, to one of the most deadly bacteria ever encountered by humans (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: How and when it originated remains contentious.We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague.Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 208, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus