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Reward can modulate attentional capture, independent of top-down set.

Munneke J, Hoppenbrouwers SS, Theeuwes J - Atten Percept Psychophys (2015)

Bottom Line: As such, the value that is associated with certain stimuli modulates attentional capture.Crucially, the exogenous cue also indicated the reward value.Crucially, an interaction between exogenous cue validity and reward level was observed, indicating that reward-based associative-learning processes rapidly influence attentional capture, even when endogenous attention has been actively deployed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Jaap.Munneke@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The traditional distinction between exogenous and endogenous attentional control has recently been enriched with an additional mode of control, termed "selection history." Recent findings have indicated, for instance, that previously rewarded or punished stimuli capture more attention than their physical attributes would predict. As such, the value that is associated with certain stimuli modulates attentional capture. This particular influence has also been shown for endogenous attention. Although recent leads have emerged, elucidating the influences of reward on exogenous and endogenous attention, it remains unclear to what extent exogenous attention is modulated by reward when endogenous attention is already deployed. We used a Posner cueing task in which exogenous and endogenous cues were presented to guide attention. Crucially, the exogenous cue also indicated the reward value. That is, the color of the exogenous cue indicated how much reward could be obtained on a given trial. The results showed main effects of endogenous and exogenous attention (i.e., speeded reaction times when either cue was valid, as compared to when it was invalid). Crucially, an interaction between exogenous cue validity and reward level was observed, indicating that reward-based associative-learning processes rapidly influence attentional capture, even when endogenous attention has been actively deployed.

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The exogenous validity effect per reward level increases with higher rewards. Error bars reflect the standard errors of the means. The effects of the reward-cueing task are contrasted with the control task
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Fig2: The exogenous validity effect per reward level increases with higher rewards. Error bars reflect the standard errors of the means. The effects of the reward-cueing task are contrasted with the control task

Mentions: To investigate how reward associations influenced exogenous attention, we examined the exogenous cue validity effects separately for each reward level. A repeated measures ANOVA with Endogenous and Exogenous Cue Validity as within-subjects factors was performed for each reward level separately (see Table 1 for the average RTs and accuracy scores per condition). This analysis showed a significant exogenous validity effect for high-reward trials [F(1, 17) = 18.484, p < .001, ηp2 = .521, power = .982] and a trend for low-reward trials [F(1, 17) = 3.341, p = .085, ηp2 = .164, power = .407], whereas no reliable difference was observed for the no-reward trials (F < 1; see Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Reward can modulate attentional capture, independent of top-down set.

Munneke J, Hoppenbrouwers SS, Theeuwes J - Atten Percept Psychophys (2015)

The exogenous validity effect per reward level increases with higher rewards. Error bars reflect the standard errors of the means. The effects of the reward-cueing task are contrasted with the control task
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644218&req=5

Fig2: The exogenous validity effect per reward level increases with higher rewards. Error bars reflect the standard errors of the means. The effects of the reward-cueing task are contrasted with the control task
Mentions: To investigate how reward associations influenced exogenous attention, we examined the exogenous cue validity effects separately for each reward level. A repeated measures ANOVA with Endogenous and Exogenous Cue Validity as within-subjects factors was performed for each reward level separately (see Table 1 for the average RTs and accuracy scores per condition). This analysis showed a significant exogenous validity effect for high-reward trials [F(1, 17) = 18.484, p < .001, ηp2 = .521, power = .982] and a trend for low-reward trials [F(1, 17) = 3.341, p = .085, ηp2 = .164, power = .407], whereas no reliable difference was observed for the no-reward trials (F < 1; see Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: As such, the value that is associated with certain stimuli modulates attentional capture.Crucially, the exogenous cue also indicated the reward value.Crucially, an interaction between exogenous cue validity and reward level was observed, indicating that reward-based associative-learning processes rapidly influence attentional capture, even when endogenous attention has been actively deployed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Jaap.Munneke@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The traditional distinction between exogenous and endogenous attentional control has recently been enriched with an additional mode of control, termed "selection history." Recent findings have indicated, for instance, that previously rewarded or punished stimuli capture more attention than their physical attributes would predict. As such, the value that is associated with certain stimuli modulates attentional capture. This particular influence has also been shown for endogenous attention. Although recent leads have emerged, elucidating the influences of reward on exogenous and endogenous attention, it remains unclear to what extent exogenous attention is modulated by reward when endogenous attention is already deployed. We used a Posner cueing task in which exogenous and endogenous cues were presented to guide attention. Crucially, the exogenous cue also indicated the reward value. That is, the color of the exogenous cue indicated how much reward could be obtained on a given trial. The results showed main effects of endogenous and exogenous attention (i.e., speeded reaction times when either cue was valid, as compared to when it was invalid). Crucially, an interaction between exogenous cue validity and reward level was observed, indicating that reward-based associative-learning processes rapidly influence attentional capture, even when endogenous attention has been actively deployed.

Show MeSH