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Constrained Dual Scaling for Detecting Response Styles in Categorical Data.

Schoonees PC, van de Velden M, Groenen PJ - Psychometrika (2015)

Bottom Line: Response styles occur when respondents use rating scales differently for reasons not related to the questions, often biasing results.A spline-based constrained version of DS is devised which can detect the presence of four prominent types of response styles, and is extended to allow for multiple response styles.An alternating nonnegative least squares algorithm is devised for estimating the parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Econometric Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. schoonees@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Dual scaling (DS) is a multivariate exploratory method equivalent to correspondence analysis when analysing contingency tables. However, for the analysis of rating data, different proposals appear in the DS and correspondence analysis literature. It is shown here that a peculiarity of the DS method can be exploited to detect differences in response styles. Response styles occur when respondents use rating scales differently for reasons not related to the questions, often biasing results. A spline-based constrained version of DS is devised which can detect the presence of four prominent types of response styles, and is extended to allow for multiple response styles. An alternating nonnegative least squares algorithm is devised for estimating the parameters. The new method is appraised both by simulation studies and an empirical application.

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The estimated response mappings for  (top left) to 8 (bottom right) groups, respectively. The area of the bubbles are proportional to how often that particular rating is used. The group sizes are also shown in a legend. Groups are labelled sequentially; the legend should be read vertically and then horizontally.
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Fig8: The estimated response mappings for (top left) to 8 (bottom right) groups, respectively. The area of the bubbles are proportional to how often that particular rating is used. The group sizes are also shown in a legend. Groups are labelled sequentially; the legend should be read vertically and then horizontally.

Mentions: The response mappings for the solutions are displayed in FigureĀ 8. In these plots the horizontal axis contains the original rating scale, while the vertical axis denotes the optimal scores assigned to the Likert scale. The area of the bubbles superimposed on the transformation plots indicate how often each rating category is used, aiding in the interpretation. A first observation is that (strictly, almost) all the detected response mappings have the characteristic convex shape of acquiescence. This means that all panellists have a tendency to use positive ratings frequently. The groups differ with respect to the intensity of the acquiescence.Fig. 8


Constrained Dual Scaling for Detecting Response Styles in Categorical Data.

Schoonees PC, van de Velden M, Groenen PJ - Psychometrika (2015)

The estimated response mappings for  (top left) to 8 (bottom right) groups, respectively. The area of the bubbles are proportional to how often that particular rating is used. The group sizes are also shown in a legend. Groups are labelled sequentially; the legend should be read vertically and then horizontally.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644217&req=5

Fig8: The estimated response mappings for (top left) to 8 (bottom right) groups, respectively. The area of the bubbles are proportional to how often that particular rating is used. The group sizes are also shown in a legend. Groups are labelled sequentially; the legend should be read vertically and then horizontally.
Mentions: The response mappings for the solutions are displayed in FigureĀ 8. In these plots the horizontal axis contains the original rating scale, while the vertical axis denotes the optimal scores assigned to the Likert scale. The area of the bubbles superimposed on the transformation plots indicate how often each rating category is used, aiding in the interpretation. A first observation is that (strictly, almost) all the detected response mappings have the characteristic convex shape of acquiescence. This means that all panellists have a tendency to use positive ratings frequently. The groups differ with respect to the intensity of the acquiescence.Fig. 8

Bottom Line: Response styles occur when respondents use rating scales differently for reasons not related to the questions, often biasing results.A spline-based constrained version of DS is devised which can detect the presence of four prominent types of response styles, and is extended to allow for multiple response styles.An alternating nonnegative least squares algorithm is devised for estimating the parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Econometric Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. schoonees@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Dual scaling (DS) is a multivariate exploratory method equivalent to correspondence analysis when analysing contingency tables. However, for the analysis of rating data, different proposals appear in the DS and correspondence analysis literature. It is shown here that a peculiarity of the DS method can be exploited to detect differences in response styles. Response styles occur when respondents use rating scales differently for reasons not related to the questions, often biasing results. A spline-based constrained version of DS is devised which can detect the presence of four prominent types of response styles, and is extended to allow for multiple response styles. An alternating nonnegative least squares algorithm is devised for estimating the parameters. The new method is appraised both by simulation studies and an empirical application.

Show MeSH