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The behavioral urgency of objects approaching your avatar.

Schreij D, Olivers CN - Atten Percept Psychophys (2015)

Bottom Line: However, humans are also capable of identifying with entities outside one's own body.Moreover, response speeding was frequently accompanied by an increase in errors, consistent with recent evidence that the urgency of looming is at least to a large extent expressed in response processes rather than in perceptual selection of the looming object.Thus, a general version of the behavioral-urgency hypothesis also holds for external entities with which the observer can identify.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. d.schreij@vu.nl.

ABSTRACT
The behavioral-urgency hypothesis (Franconeri & Simons, Psychological Science, 19, 686-692, 2003) states that dynamic visual properties capture human visual attention if they signal the need for immediate action. The seminal example is the potential collision of a looming object with one's body. However, humans are also capable of identifying with entities outside one's own body. Here we report evidence that behavioral urgency transfers to an avatar in a simple 2-D computer game. By controlling the avatar, the participant responded to shape changes of the target in a visual search task. Simultaneously, and completely irrelevant to the task, one of the objects on screen could move. Responses were overall fastest when the target happened to be the moving object and was on a collision course with the avatar, as compared to when the moving target just passed by the avatar or moved away from it. The effects on search efficiency were less consistent, except that search was more efficient overall whenever a target moved. Moreover, response speeding was frequently accompanied by an increase in errors, consistent with recent evidence that the urgency of looming is at least to a large extent expressed in response processes rather than in perceptual selection of the looming object. Thus, a general version of the behavioral-urgency hypothesis also holds for external entities with which the observer can identify.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of Experiment 3. (A) Mean response times (RTs) for conditions in which the moving item was absent or was a distractor or the target, plotted against set size. (B) RT costs (for moving distractors, positive) and benefits (moving targets, negative) for each movement direction, relative to the condition in which no moving item was present. (C) Search slopes for these same items relative to the slopes of the condition in which no moving item was present. Error bars represent the within-subjects 95 % confidence intervals of the mean differences relative to the no-movement baseline
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Fig5: Results of Experiment 3. (A) Mean response times (RTs) for conditions in which the moving item was absent or was a distractor or the target, plotted against set size. (B) RT costs (for moving distractors, positive) and benefits (moving targets, negative) for each movement direction, relative to the condition in which no moving item was present. (C) Search slopes for these same items relative to the slopes of the condition in which no moving item was present. Error bars represent the within-subjects 95 % confidence intervals of the mean differences relative to the no-movement baseline

Mentions: The measure of interest was the target identification RT (corresponding to the buttonpress). The mouse movement latency did not provide a clean measure, since the necessity and extent of moving the mouse differed per condition. In Experiment 1, four participants who made more than 30 % errors were removed from the data set. Trials with erroneous responses (19 % in Exp. 1, 5.5 % in Exp. 2, and 9.6 % in Exp. 3) were removed from the data set, and so were trials with responses that differed more than 2.5 SDs from the participant’s mean (2.5 % in Exp. 1, 2.6 % in Exp. 2, 2.5 % in Exp. 3). The resulting RTs are displayed in Figs. 3a, 4a, and 5a. For convenience, and because the results are very similar for all experiments, Fig. 6a displays the results collapsed across experiments.Fig. 3


The behavioral urgency of objects approaching your avatar.

Schreij D, Olivers CN - Atten Percept Psychophys (2015)

Results of Experiment 3. (A) Mean response times (RTs) for conditions in which the moving item was absent or was a distractor or the target, plotted against set size. (B) RT costs (for moving distractors, positive) and benefits (moving targets, negative) for each movement direction, relative to the condition in which no moving item was present. (C) Search slopes for these same items relative to the slopes of the condition in which no moving item was present. Error bars represent the within-subjects 95 % confidence intervals of the mean differences relative to the no-movement baseline
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644209&req=5

Fig5: Results of Experiment 3. (A) Mean response times (RTs) for conditions in which the moving item was absent or was a distractor or the target, plotted against set size. (B) RT costs (for moving distractors, positive) and benefits (moving targets, negative) for each movement direction, relative to the condition in which no moving item was present. (C) Search slopes for these same items relative to the slopes of the condition in which no moving item was present. Error bars represent the within-subjects 95 % confidence intervals of the mean differences relative to the no-movement baseline
Mentions: The measure of interest was the target identification RT (corresponding to the buttonpress). The mouse movement latency did not provide a clean measure, since the necessity and extent of moving the mouse differed per condition. In Experiment 1, four participants who made more than 30 % errors were removed from the data set. Trials with erroneous responses (19 % in Exp. 1, 5.5 % in Exp. 2, and 9.6 % in Exp. 3) were removed from the data set, and so were trials with responses that differed more than 2.5 SDs from the participant’s mean (2.5 % in Exp. 1, 2.6 % in Exp. 2, 2.5 % in Exp. 3). The resulting RTs are displayed in Figs. 3a, 4a, and 5a. For convenience, and because the results are very similar for all experiments, Fig. 6a displays the results collapsed across experiments.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: However, humans are also capable of identifying with entities outside one's own body.Moreover, response speeding was frequently accompanied by an increase in errors, consistent with recent evidence that the urgency of looming is at least to a large extent expressed in response processes rather than in perceptual selection of the looming object.Thus, a general version of the behavioral-urgency hypothesis also holds for external entities with which the observer can identify.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. d.schreij@vu.nl.

ABSTRACT
The behavioral-urgency hypothesis (Franconeri & Simons, Psychological Science, 19, 686-692, 2003) states that dynamic visual properties capture human visual attention if they signal the need for immediate action. The seminal example is the potential collision of a looming object with one's body. However, humans are also capable of identifying with entities outside one's own body. Here we report evidence that behavioral urgency transfers to an avatar in a simple 2-D computer game. By controlling the avatar, the participant responded to shape changes of the target in a visual search task. Simultaneously, and completely irrelevant to the task, one of the objects on screen could move. Responses were overall fastest when the target happened to be the moving object and was on a collision course with the avatar, as compared to when the moving target just passed by the avatar or moved away from it. The effects on search efficiency were less consistent, except that search was more efficient overall whenever a target moved. Moreover, response speeding was frequently accompanied by an increase in errors, consistent with recent evidence that the urgency of looming is at least to a large extent expressed in response processes rather than in perceptual selection of the looming object. Thus, a general version of the behavioral-urgency hypothesis also holds for external entities with which the observer can identify.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus