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With peppermints you're not my prince: aroma modulates self-other integration.

Sellaro R, Hommel B, Rossi Paccani C, Colzato LS - Atten Percept Psychophys (2015)

Bottom Line: Results showed that both aromas modulated the size of the JSE, although they had a dissociable effect on reaction times (RTs) and percentage of errors (PEs).Whilst the JSE in RTs was found to be less pronounced in the peppermint group, compared to the lavender and no-aroma groups, the JSE in PEs was significantly more pronounced in the lavender group, compared to the peppermint and no-aroma group.These results are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting that the degree of self-other integration does not reflect a trait but a particular cognitive state, which can be biased towards excluding or integrating the other in one's self-representation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. r.sellaro@fsw.leidenuniv.nl.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies showed that self-other integration, as indexed by the joint Simon effect (JSE), can be modulated by biasing participants towards particular (integrative vs. exclusive) cognitive-control states. Interestingly, there is evidence suggesting that such control states can be induced by particular odors: stimulating odors (e.g., peppermint aroma) seem to induce a more focused, exclusive state; relaxing odors (e.g., lavender aroma) are thought to induce a broader, more integrative state. In the present study, we tested the possible impact of peppermint and lavender aromas on self-other integration. Pairs of participants performed the joint Simon task in an either peppermint- or lavender-scented testing room. Results showed that both aromas modulated the size of the JSE, although they had a dissociable effect on reaction times (RTs) and percentage of errors (PEs). Whilst the JSE in RTs was found to be less pronounced in the peppermint group, compared to the lavender and no-aroma groups, the JSE in PEs was significantly more pronounced in the lavender group, compared to the peppermint and no-aroma group. These results are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting that the degree of self-other integration does not reflect a trait but a particular cognitive state, which can be biased towards excluding or integrating the other in one's self-representation.

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Experiment 2 (two-choice Simon task): Mean correct reaction times (RTs; panel a) and percentage of errors (PEs; panel b) as a function of group (lavender, peppermint, and control) and spatial stimulus-response (S-R) correspondence. Error bars show standard errors of the means
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Fig2: Experiment 2 (two-choice Simon task): Mean correct reaction times (RTs; panel a) and percentage of errors (PEs; panel b) as a function of group (lavender, peppermint, and control) and spatial stimulus-response (S-R) correspondence. Error bars show standard errors of the means

Mentions: The RT and PE analyses revealed significant main effects of Correspondence, F(1,69) = 190.014, p < .0001, MSE=212.42, η2p=0.73 (RT), F(1,69) = 44.525, p < .0001, MSE=11.09, η2p=0.39 (PE). Participants were faster and produced less errors on corresponding (378 ms and 3.4 %, respectively) than on noncorresponding (411 ms and 7.1 %) trials. Importantly, neither the main effects of Aroma Group nor the interactions involving Correspondence and Aroma Group were significant, Fs≤1.52, ps≥.23 (see Fig. 2, panels A and B).Fig. 2


With peppermints you're not my prince: aroma modulates self-other integration.

Sellaro R, Hommel B, Rossi Paccani C, Colzato LS - Atten Percept Psychophys (2015)

Experiment 2 (two-choice Simon task): Mean correct reaction times (RTs; panel a) and percentage of errors (PEs; panel b) as a function of group (lavender, peppermint, and control) and spatial stimulus-response (S-R) correspondence. Error bars show standard errors of the means
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644205&req=5

Fig2: Experiment 2 (two-choice Simon task): Mean correct reaction times (RTs; panel a) and percentage of errors (PEs; panel b) as a function of group (lavender, peppermint, and control) and spatial stimulus-response (S-R) correspondence. Error bars show standard errors of the means
Mentions: The RT and PE analyses revealed significant main effects of Correspondence, F(1,69) = 190.014, p < .0001, MSE=212.42, η2p=0.73 (RT), F(1,69) = 44.525, p < .0001, MSE=11.09, η2p=0.39 (PE). Participants were faster and produced less errors on corresponding (378 ms and 3.4 %, respectively) than on noncorresponding (411 ms and 7.1 %) trials. Importantly, neither the main effects of Aroma Group nor the interactions involving Correspondence and Aroma Group were significant, Fs≤1.52, ps≥.23 (see Fig. 2, panels A and B).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Results showed that both aromas modulated the size of the JSE, although they had a dissociable effect on reaction times (RTs) and percentage of errors (PEs).Whilst the JSE in RTs was found to be less pronounced in the peppermint group, compared to the lavender and no-aroma groups, the JSE in PEs was significantly more pronounced in the lavender group, compared to the peppermint and no-aroma group.These results are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting that the degree of self-other integration does not reflect a trait but a particular cognitive state, which can be biased towards excluding or integrating the other in one's self-representation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. r.sellaro@fsw.leidenuniv.nl.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies showed that self-other integration, as indexed by the joint Simon effect (JSE), can be modulated by biasing participants towards particular (integrative vs. exclusive) cognitive-control states. Interestingly, there is evidence suggesting that such control states can be induced by particular odors: stimulating odors (e.g., peppermint aroma) seem to induce a more focused, exclusive state; relaxing odors (e.g., lavender aroma) are thought to induce a broader, more integrative state. In the present study, we tested the possible impact of peppermint and lavender aromas on self-other integration. Pairs of participants performed the joint Simon task in an either peppermint- or lavender-scented testing room. Results showed that both aromas modulated the size of the JSE, although they had a dissociable effect on reaction times (RTs) and percentage of errors (PEs). Whilst the JSE in RTs was found to be less pronounced in the peppermint group, compared to the lavender and no-aroma groups, the JSE in PEs was significantly more pronounced in the lavender group, compared to the peppermint and no-aroma group. These results are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting that the degree of self-other integration does not reflect a trait but a particular cognitive state, which can be biased towards excluding or integrating the other in one's self-representation.

Show MeSH