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An Analog Filter Approach to Frequency Domain Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

Trainham R, O'Neill M, McKenna IJ - J Fluoresc (2015)

Bottom Line: The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory.The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.The simplification of the analysis mathematics, and the ability to model the entire detection chain, make it possible to develop more compact instruments for remote sensing applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Special Technologies Laboratory, National Security Technologies, LLC, 5520 Ekwill Street, Santa Barbara, CA, 93111, USA. trainhcp@nv.doe.gov.

ABSTRACT
The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modelled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as SPICE can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modelling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response. The simplification of the analysis mathematics, and the ability to model the entire detection chain, make it possible to develop more compact instruments for remote sensing applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The fluorescence response to a square wave drive signal has a shark’s fin appearance at frequencies comparable to the decay rate. The family of curves shown here is for response wave forms ranging in frequency from ω = 0.01Γ to ω = 10Γ
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Fig7: The fluorescence response to a square wave drive signal has a shark’s fin appearance at frequencies comparable to the decay rate. The family of curves shown here is for response wave forms ranging in frequency from ω = 0.01Γ to ω = 10Γ

Mentions: When the square wave drive frequency ω is slow compared to the fluorescence decay rate Γ the fluorescence response is a rounded square wave. When the frequency is comparable to the decay rate then the response has a shark’s fin appearance. At higher frequencies the response becomes a triangle wave with smaller and smaller amplitude. At higher drive frequencies the turn-on transient persists over multiple cycles before settling down and oscillating about a constant DC offset. Examples of the response wave forms for drive frequencies ranging from ω = 0.01Γ to ω = 10Γ are shown in Fig. 7.Fig. 7


An Analog Filter Approach to Frequency Domain Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

Trainham R, O'Neill M, McKenna IJ - J Fluoresc (2015)

The fluorescence response to a square wave drive signal has a shark’s fin appearance at frequencies comparable to the decay rate. The family of curves shown here is for response wave forms ranging in frequency from ω = 0.01Γ to ω = 10Γ
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644193&req=5

Fig7: The fluorescence response to a square wave drive signal has a shark’s fin appearance at frequencies comparable to the decay rate. The family of curves shown here is for response wave forms ranging in frequency from ω = 0.01Γ to ω = 10Γ
Mentions: When the square wave drive frequency ω is slow compared to the fluorescence decay rate Γ the fluorescence response is a rounded square wave. When the frequency is comparable to the decay rate then the response has a shark’s fin appearance. At higher frequencies the response becomes a triangle wave with smaller and smaller amplitude. At higher drive frequencies the turn-on transient persists over multiple cycles before settling down and oscillating about a constant DC offset. Examples of the response wave forms for drive frequencies ranging from ω = 0.01Γ to ω = 10Γ are shown in Fig. 7.Fig. 7

Bottom Line: The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory.The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.The simplification of the analysis mathematics, and the ability to model the entire detection chain, make it possible to develop more compact instruments for remote sensing applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Special Technologies Laboratory, National Security Technologies, LLC, 5520 Ekwill Street, Santa Barbara, CA, 93111, USA. trainhcp@nv.doe.gov.

ABSTRACT
The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modelled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as SPICE can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modelling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response. The simplification of the analysis mathematics, and the ability to model the entire detection chain, make it possible to develop more compact instruments for remote sensing applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus