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Engineering iodine-doped carbon dots as dual-modal probes for fluorescence and X-ray CT imaging.

Zhang M, Ju H, Zhang L, Sun M, Zhou Z, Dai Z, Zhang L, Gong A, Wu C, Du F - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: Importantly, I-doped CDs displayed superior X-ray attenuation properties in vitro and excellent biocompatibility.After intravenous injection, I-doped CDs were distributed throughout the body and excreted by renal clearance.These findings validated that I-doped CDs with high X-ray attenuation potency and favorable photoluminescence show great promise for biomedical research and disease diagnosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging technique for noninvasive diagnosis of disease. In order to improve tissue specificity and prevent adverse effects, we report the design and synthesis of iodine-doped carbon dots (I-doped CDs) as efficient CT contrast agents and fluorescence probe by a facile bottom-up hydrothermal carbonization process. The as-prepared I-doped CDs are monodispersed spherical nanoparticles (a diameter of ~2.7 nm) with favorable dispersibility and colloidal stability in water. The aqueous solution of I-doped CDs showed wavelength-dependent excitation and stable photoluminescence similar to traditional carbon quantum dots. Importantly, I-doped CDs displayed superior X-ray attenuation properties in vitro and excellent biocompatibility. After intravenous injection, I-doped CDs were distributed throughout the body and excreted by renal clearance. These findings validated that I-doped CDs with high X-ray attenuation potency and favorable photoluminescence show great promise for biomedical research and disease diagnosis.

No MeSH data available.


XRD patterns and radio-opacity of the I-doped CDs.Notes: (A) XRD patterns of the I-doped CDs. The inset represents the heterogeneous multilayer of the I-doped CDs, corresponding to characteristic diffraction peaks. (B) In vitro CT imaging of the I-doped CDs with different iodine concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/mL. (C) The measured CT value of the five samples as a function of iodine concentration.Abbreviations: XRD, X-ray diffraction; I-doped CDs, iodine-doped carbon dots; CT, computed tomography.
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f4-ijn-10-6943: XRD patterns and radio-opacity of the I-doped CDs.Notes: (A) XRD patterns of the I-doped CDs. The inset represents the heterogeneous multilayer of the I-doped CDs, corresponding to characteristic diffraction peaks. (B) In vitro CT imaging of the I-doped CDs with different iodine concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/mL. (C) The measured CT value of the five samples as a function of iodine concentration.Abbreviations: XRD, X-ray diffraction; I-doped CDs, iodine-doped carbon dots; CT, computed tomography.

Mentions: The crystal structure of the I-doped CDs was investigated by X-ray diffraction. As shown in Figure 4A, there were three diffraction peaks in the I-doped CDs pattern around 13.17°, 29.6°, and 42.7°, respectively. The corresponding interlayer spacing (d) was calculated from the Bragg’s law (the wavelength of Cu-Kα (λ) is 0.154 nm). These diffraction peaks matched well with the characteristic peaks of graphite oxide. As for the main peak, the diffraction peak of I-doped CDs around 13.17° (d001=0.671 nm) was similar to the typical diffraction peak (2θ=10.6°, {001} plane) of graphite oxide, which was attributed to an increase in sp3 layers spacing. During HTC process, many functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, epoxy, and amino groups were formed and bonded to the edges of basal planes of the crystal structure, inducing an increase in the interlayer spacing. Additionally, the second diffraction peak of I-doped CDs around 29.6° (d002=0.301 nm) became stronger and was more similar to the characteristic peaks of graphite ({002} planes, 2θ=26.5°) than graphite oxide. However, compared to the ordered crystal structure of graphite, the upward shift (from 26.5° to 29.6°) was attributed to highly disordered carbon and decrease in the sp2 (C–C) layers spacing in the carbonization process. The decrease in the intensity of the three peaks and the increase of the full width half maximum were due to the amorphous carbon structure of the prepared I-doped CDs. These results further indicated that these I-doped CDs with poor crystalline nature possessed heterogeneous multilayered structure, which was consistent with our previous reports about other CDs.28,29


Engineering iodine-doped carbon dots as dual-modal probes for fluorescence and X-ray CT imaging.

Zhang M, Ju H, Zhang L, Sun M, Zhou Z, Dai Z, Zhang L, Gong A, Wu C, Du F - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

XRD patterns and radio-opacity of the I-doped CDs.Notes: (A) XRD patterns of the I-doped CDs. The inset represents the heterogeneous multilayer of the I-doped CDs, corresponding to characteristic diffraction peaks. (B) In vitro CT imaging of the I-doped CDs with different iodine concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/mL. (C) The measured CT value of the five samples as a function of iodine concentration.Abbreviations: XRD, X-ray diffraction; I-doped CDs, iodine-doped carbon dots; CT, computed tomography.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644166&req=5

f4-ijn-10-6943: XRD patterns and radio-opacity of the I-doped CDs.Notes: (A) XRD patterns of the I-doped CDs. The inset represents the heterogeneous multilayer of the I-doped CDs, corresponding to characteristic diffraction peaks. (B) In vitro CT imaging of the I-doped CDs with different iodine concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/mL. (C) The measured CT value of the five samples as a function of iodine concentration.Abbreviations: XRD, X-ray diffraction; I-doped CDs, iodine-doped carbon dots; CT, computed tomography.
Mentions: The crystal structure of the I-doped CDs was investigated by X-ray diffraction. As shown in Figure 4A, there were three diffraction peaks in the I-doped CDs pattern around 13.17°, 29.6°, and 42.7°, respectively. The corresponding interlayer spacing (d) was calculated from the Bragg’s law (the wavelength of Cu-Kα (λ) is 0.154 nm). These diffraction peaks matched well with the characteristic peaks of graphite oxide. As for the main peak, the diffraction peak of I-doped CDs around 13.17° (d001=0.671 nm) was similar to the typical diffraction peak (2θ=10.6°, {001} plane) of graphite oxide, which was attributed to an increase in sp3 layers spacing. During HTC process, many functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, epoxy, and amino groups were formed and bonded to the edges of basal planes of the crystal structure, inducing an increase in the interlayer spacing. Additionally, the second diffraction peak of I-doped CDs around 29.6° (d002=0.301 nm) became stronger and was more similar to the characteristic peaks of graphite ({002} planes, 2θ=26.5°) than graphite oxide. However, compared to the ordered crystal structure of graphite, the upward shift (from 26.5° to 29.6°) was attributed to highly disordered carbon and decrease in the sp2 (C–C) layers spacing in the carbonization process. The decrease in the intensity of the three peaks and the increase of the full width half maximum were due to the amorphous carbon structure of the prepared I-doped CDs. These results further indicated that these I-doped CDs with poor crystalline nature possessed heterogeneous multilayered structure, which was consistent with our previous reports about other CDs.28,29

Bottom Line: Importantly, I-doped CDs displayed superior X-ray attenuation properties in vitro and excellent biocompatibility.After intravenous injection, I-doped CDs were distributed throughout the body and excreted by renal clearance.These findings validated that I-doped CDs with high X-ray attenuation potency and favorable photoluminescence show great promise for biomedical research and disease diagnosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging technique for noninvasive diagnosis of disease. In order to improve tissue specificity and prevent adverse effects, we report the design and synthesis of iodine-doped carbon dots (I-doped CDs) as efficient CT contrast agents and fluorescence probe by a facile bottom-up hydrothermal carbonization process. The as-prepared I-doped CDs are monodispersed spherical nanoparticles (a diameter of ~2.7 nm) with favorable dispersibility and colloidal stability in water. The aqueous solution of I-doped CDs showed wavelength-dependent excitation and stable photoluminescence similar to traditional carbon quantum dots. Importantly, I-doped CDs displayed superior X-ray attenuation properties in vitro and excellent biocompatibility. After intravenous injection, I-doped CDs were distributed throughout the body and excreted by renal clearance. These findings validated that I-doped CDs with high X-ray attenuation potency and favorable photoluminescence show great promise for biomedical research and disease diagnosis.

No MeSH data available.