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In silico evaluation of gadofosveset pharmacokinetics in different population groups using the Simcyp ® simulator platform

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Gadofosveset is a Gd-based contrast agent used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium kinetic distribution models are implemented in T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI for characterization of lesion sites in the body. Physiology changes in a disease state potentially can influence the pharmacokinetics of drugs and to this respect modify the distribution properties of contrast agents. This work focuses on the in silico modelling of pharmacokinetic properties of gadofosveset in different population groups through the application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) embedded in Simcyp® population pharmacokinetics platform.

Methods: Physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of gadofosveset were introduced into Simcyp® simulator platform and a min-PBPK model was applied. In silico clinical trials were generated simulating the administration of the recommended dose for the contrast agent (i.v., 30 mg/kg) in population cohorts of healthy volunteers, obese, renal and liver impairment, and in a generated virtual oncology population. Results were evaluated regarding basic pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC and systemic CL and differences were assessed through ANOVA and estimation of ratio of geometric mean between healthy volunteers and the other population groups.

Results: Simcyp® predicted a mean Cmax = 551.60 mg/l, a mean AUC = 4079.12 mg/L*h and a mean systemic CL = 0.56 L/h for the virtual population of healthy volunteers. Obese population showed a modulation in Cmax and CL, attributed to increased administered dose. In renal and liver impairment cohorts a significant modulation in Cmax, AUC and CL of gadofosveset is predicted. Oncology population exhibited statistical significant differences regarding AUC when compared with healthy volunteers.

Conclusions: This work employed Simcyp® population pharmacokinetics platform in order to compute gadofosveset’s pharmacokinetic profiles through PBPK models and in silico clinical trials and evaluate possible differences between population groups. The approach showed promising results that could provide new insights regarding administration of contrast agents in special population cohorts. In silico pharmacokinetics could further be used for evaluating of possible toxicity, interpretation of MRI PK image maps and development of novel contrast agents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Semi-log plots of systemic concentration in plasma over time of gadofosveset in the simulated populations groups. (I) Healthy volunteers, (II) Renal impairment (GFR30-60) (III) Renal impairment (GFR < 30), (IV) Obese, (V) Oncology, (VI) Liver cirrhosis type A, (VII) Liver cirrhosis type B, (VIII) Liver cirrhosis type C.
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Fig2: Semi-log plots of systemic concentration in plasma over time of gadofosveset in the simulated populations groups. (I) Healthy volunteers, (II) Renal impairment (GFR30-60) (III) Renal impairment (GFR < 30), (IV) Obese, (V) Oncology, (VI) Liver cirrhosis type A, (VII) Liver cirrhosis type B, (VIII) Liver cirrhosis type C.

Mentions: The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of gadofosveset are presented in Table 2 and the concentration-time profiles of the mean values along with the upper and lower percentile for each population are illustrated in Figure 2(I-VIII). Pharmacokinetic profiles and parameters seem to differentiate in the other population cohorts as it is shown in Figure 2(II-VIII) and Table 2. Figure 3 shows the modulation from the ratio of geometric mean of Cmax, AUC and CL between healthy volunteers and the other population groups. The elimination of gadofosveset was in linear correlation to kidney function and GFR for all population groups and the cumulative amount –or the fraction of administered dose – of contrast agent excreted in urine was similar in most cases except in kidney and liver impairment (Table 2, Figure 4).Table 2


In silico evaluation of gadofosveset pharmacokinetics in different population groups using the Simcyp ® simulator platform
Semi-log plots of systemic concentration in plasma over time of gadofosveset in the simulated populations groups. (I) Healthy volunteers, (II) Renal impairment (GFR30-60) (III) Renal impairment (GFR < 30), (IV) Obese, (V) Oncology, (VI) Liver cirrhosis type A, (VII) Liver cirrhosis type B, (VIII) Liver cirrhosis type C.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4644137&req=5

Fig2: Semi-log plots of systemic concentration in plasma over time of gadofosveset in the simulated populations groups. (I) Healthy volunteers, (II) Renal impairment (GFR30-60) (III) Renal impairment (GFR < 30), (IV) Obese, (V) Oncology, (VI) Liver cirrhosis type A, (VII) Liver cirrhosis type B, (VIII) Liver cirrhosis type C.
Mentions: The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of gadofosveset are presented in Table 2 and the concentration-time profiles of the mean values along with the upper and lower percentile for each population are illustrated in Figure 2(I-VIII). Pharmacokinetic profiles and parameters seem to differentiate in the other population cohorts as it is shown in Figure 2(II-VIII) and Table 2. Figure 3 shows the modulation from the ratio of geometric mean of Cmax, AUC and CL between healthy volunteers and the other population groups. The elimination of gadofosveset was in linear correlation to kidney function and GFR for all population groups and the cumulative amount –or the fraction of administered dose – of contrast agent excreted in urine was similar in most cases except in kidney and liver impairment (Table 2, Figure 4).Table 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Gadofosveset is a Gd-based contrast agent used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium kinetic distribution models are implemented in T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI for characterization of lesion sites in the body. Physiology changes in a disease state potentially can influence the pharmacokinetics of drugs and to this respect modify the distribution properties of contrast agents. This work focuses on the in silico modelling of pharmacokinetic properties of gadofosveset in different population groups through the application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) embedded in Simcyp&reg; population pharmacokinetics platform.

Methods: Physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of gadofosveset were introduced into Simcyp&reg; simulator platform and a min-PBPK model was applied. In silico clinical trials were generated simulating the administration of the recommended dose for the contrast agent (i.v., 30&nbsp;mg/kg) in population cohorts of healthy volunteers, obese, renal and liver impairment, and in a generated virtual oncology population. Results were evaluated regarding basic pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC and systemic CL and differences were assessed through ANOVA and estimation of ratio of geometric mean between healthy volunteers and the other population groups.

Results: Simcyp&reg; predicted a mean Cmax&thinsp;=&thinsp;551.60&nbsp;mg/l, a mean AUC&thinsp;=&thinsp;4079.12&nbsp;mg/L*h and a mean systemic CL&thinsp;=&thinsp;0.56&nbsp;L/h for the virtual population of healthy volunteers. Obese population showed a modulation in Cmax and CL, attributed to increased administered dose. In renal and liver impairment cohorts a significant modulation in Cmax, AUC and CL of gadofosveset is predicted. Oncology population exhibited statistical significant differences regarding AUC when compared with healthy volunteers.

Conclusions: This work employed Simcyp&reg; population pharmacokinetics platform in order to compute gadofosveset&rsquo;s pharmacokinetic profiles through PBPK models and in silico clinical trials and evaluate possible differences between population groups. The approach showed promising results that could provide new insights regarding administration of contrast agents in special population cohorts. In silico pharmacokinetics could further be used for evaluating of possible toxicity, interpretation of MRI PK image maps and development of novel contrast agents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus