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Ancient Genetic Signatures of Orang Asli Revealed by Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms.

NurWaliyuddin HZ, Norazmi MN, Edinur HA, Chambers GK, Panneerchelvam S, Zafarina Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively.Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival.This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Identification/DNA Unit, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The aboriginal populations of Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Orang Asli (OA), comprise three major groups; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. Here, we analyzed for the first time KIR gene polymorphisms for 167 OA individuals, including those from four smallest OA subgroups (Che Wong, Orang Kanaq, Lanoh and Kensiu) using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) analyses. The observed distribution of KIR profiles of OA is heterogenous; Haplotype B is the most frequent in the Semang subgroups (especially Batek) while Haplotype A is the most common type in the Senoi. The Semang subgroups were clustered together with the Africans, Indians, Papuans and Australian Aborigines in a principal component analysis (PCA) plot and shared many common genotypes (AB6, BB71, BB73 and BB159) observed in these other populations. Given that these populations also display high frequencies of Haplotype B, it is interesting to speculate that Haplotype B may be generally more frequent in ancient populations. In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. Orang Kanaq, the smallest and the most endangered of all OA subgroups, has lost some degree of genetic variation, as shown by their relatively high frequency of the AB2 genotype (0.73) and a total absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 genes. Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival. This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Principal component analysis plot shows the distribution of global populations based on KIR genes.All estimated KIR genes frequencies (gF) of the populations used are listed in S5 Table. A = Argentina; B = Brazil; I = Indonesia; M = Malay; S. A = South Africa; Tai = Taiwan; Vnz = Venezuela.
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pone.0141536.g003: Principal component analysis plot shows the distribution of global populations based on KIR genes.All estimated KIR genes frequencies (gF) of the populations used are listed in S5 Table. A = Argentina; B = Brazil; I = Indonesia; M = Malay; S. A = South Africa; Tai = Taiwan; Vnz = Venezuela.

Mentions: In the PCA plot, all reference populations are distributed according to their ethnogeographical regions; Northeast Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian, African, Amerindian and Oceania (Fig 3). The Semang subgroups showed some degree of genetic affinity to the Africans, South Asians, Papuans and Australia Aborigines as Lanoh, Kensiu and Batek are plotted in between these populations. Che Wong and Semai, the subgroups of Senoi are plotted closer to the Southeast Asian and African populations, respectively. In contrast, Orang Kanaq is well separated from other reference datasets including the Austronesian speaking populations.


Ancient Genetic Signatures of Orang Asli Revealed by Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms.

NurWaliyuddin HZ, Norazmi MN, Edinur HA, Chambers GK, Panneerchelvam S, Zafarina Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Principal component analysis plot shows the distribution of global populations based on KIR genes.All estimated KIR genes frequencies (gF) of the populations used are listed in S5 Table. A = Argentina; B = Brazil; I = Indonesia; M = Malay; S. A = South Africa; Tai = Taiwan; Vnz = Venezuela.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643969&req=5

pone.0141536.g003: Principal component analysis plot shows the distribution of global populations based on KIR genes.All estimated KIR genes frequencies (gF) of the populations used are listed in S5 Table. A = Argentina; B = Brazil; I = Indonesia; M = Malay; S. A = South Africa; Tai = Taiwan; Vnz = Venezuela.
Mentions: In the PCA plot, all reference populations are distributed according to their ethnogeographical regions; Northeast Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian, African, Amerindian and Oceania (Fig 3). The Semang subgroups showed some degree of genetic affinity to the Africans, South Asians, Papuans and Australia Aborigines as Lanoh, Kensiu and Batek are plotted in between these populations. Che Wong and Semai, the subgroups of Senoi are plotted closer to the Southeast Asian and African populations, respectively. In contrast, Orang Kanaq is well separated from other reference datasets including the Austronesian speaking populations.

Bottom Line: In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively.Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival.This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Identification/DNA Unit, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The aboriginal populations of Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Orang Asli (OA), comprise three major groups; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. Here, we analyzed for the first time KIR gene polymorphisms for 167 OA individuals, including those from four smallest OA subgroups (Che Wong, Orang Kanaq, Lanoh and Kensiu) using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) analyses. The observed distribution of KIR profiles of OA is heterogenous; Haplotype B is the most frequent in the Semang subgroups (especially Batek) while Haplotype A is the most common type in the Senoi. The Semang subgroups were clustered together with the Africans, Indians, Papuans and Australian Aborigines in a principal component analysis (PCA) plot and shared many common genotypes (AB6, BB71, BB73 and BB159) observed in these other populations. Given that these populations also display high frequencies of Haplotype B, it is interesting to speculate that Haplotype B may be generally more frequent in ancient populations. In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. Orang Kanaq, the smallest and the most endangered of all OA subgroups, has lost some degree of genetic variation, as shown by their relatively high frequency of the AB2 genotype (0.73) and a total absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 genes. Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival. This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus