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Three in One--Multiple Faunal Elements within an Endangered European Butterfly Species.

Junker M, Zimmermann M, Ramos AA, Gros P, Konvička M, Nève G, Rákosy L, Tammaru T, Castilho R, Schmitt T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It is thus a rare example of a model organism that combines attributes of faunal elements from all three of these sources.The observed differences between allozymes and mtDNA most likely result from recent introgression of mtDNA into nuclear allozyme groups.Our results indicate discrepancies with the morphologically-based subspecies models, underlining the need to revise the current taxonomy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biogeography, Trier University, Trier, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Ice ages within Europe forced many species to retreat to refugia, of which three major biogeographic basic types can be distinguished: "Mediterranean", "Continental" and "Alpine / Arctic" species. However, this classification often fails to explain the complex phylogeography of European species with a wide range of latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Hence, we tested for the possibility that all three mentioned faunal elements are represented within one species. Our data was obtained by scoring 1,307 Euphydryas aurinia individuals (46 European locations) for 17 allozyme loci, and sequencing a subset of 492 individuals (21 sites) for a 626 base pairs COI fragment. Genetic diversity indices, F statistics, hierarchical analyses of molecular variance, individual-based clustering, and networks were used to explore the phylogeographic patterns. The COI fragment represented 18 haplotypes showing a strong geographic structure. All but one allozyme loci analysed were polymorphic with a mean FST of 0.20, supporting a pronounced among population structure. Interpretation of both genetic marker systems, using several analytical tools, calls for the recognition of twelve genetic groups. These analyses consistently distinguished different groups in Iberia (2), Italy, Provence, Alps (3), Slovenia, Carpathian Basin, the lowlands of West and Central Europe as well as Estonia, often with considerable additional substructures. The genetic data strongly support the hypothesis that E. aurinia survived the last glaciation in Mediterranean, extra-Mediterranean and perialpine refugia. It is thus a rare example of a model organism that combines attributes of faunal elements from all three of these sources. The observed differences between allozymes and mtDNA most likely result from recent introgression of mtDNA into nuclear allozyme groups. Our results indicate discrepancies with the morphologically-based subspecies models, underlining the need to revise the current taxonomy.

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Hypothetical last glacial distribution patterns and postglacial expansion routes of Euphydryas aurinia in Europe.Striped pattern: putative continuous refugia; dashed pattern: putative structured refugia; solid arrows: proposed postglacial expansion routes; dashed arrows: supposed mtDNA introgression.
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pone.0142282.g006: Hypothetical last glacial distribution patterns and postglacial expansion routes of Euphydryas aurinia in Europe.Striped pattern: putative continuous refugia; dashed pattern: putative structured refugia; solid arrows: proposed postglacial expansion routes; dashed arrows: supposed mtDNA introgression.

Mentions: The three major Mediterranean peninsulas represented important refugia during the last ice age for many different animal and plant species [1,84–86] and might have been of importance also for E. aurinia. Our analyses revealed independent genetic groups in south-western Europe (al1, al2) and Italy (al11) which respectively indicate an atlanto-Mediterranean and an adriato-Mediterranean glacial refugium for this species. There might also be several subrefugia in Iberia and Central Italy (Fig 6). The genetic structure of the neighbour joining tree based on allozyme data and the mtDNA haplotype network support the survival of E. aurinia in at least two subrefugia in western Iberia (al1) and south of the Pyrenees (al2) (Fig 6) during the last ice age. Such an East-West discontinuity has repeatedly been observed for Iberia [87–91]. Further, more subtle regional substructuring of the western Iberian group (al1) during the last ice age is conceivable based on the remarkable allozyme structure throughout this region. Such refugia-within-refugia structures have been repeatedly demonstrated in Iberia for different taxonomic groups [92–96]. Additionally, it is likely that the remarkable ecological differentiation of Iberian E. aurinia, e.g. the larvae feeding on Lonicera species thus linking the species to hedge structures [19,20], and not Succisa pratensis and Scabiosa columbaria as in most of the other lowland populations [21–24], is the result of long-lasting allopatry, perhaps in combination with different selective pressures acting in the Iberian and the other refugia.


Three in One--Multiple Faunal Elements within an Endangered European Butterfly Species.

Junker M, Zimmermann M, Ramos AA, Gros P, Konvička M, Nève G, Rákosy L, Tammaru T, Castilho R, Schmitt T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Hypothetical last glacial distribution patterns and postglacial expansion routes of Euphydryas aurinia in Europe.Striped pattern: putative continuous refugia; dashed pattern: putative structured refugia; solid arrows: proposed postglacial expansion routes; dashed arrows: supposed mtDNA introgression.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643965&req=5

pone.0142282.g006: Hypothetical last glacial distribution patterns and postglacial expansion routes of Euphydryas aurinia in Europe.Striped pattern: putative continuous refugia; dashed pattern: putative structured refugia; solid arrows: proposed postglacial expansion routes; dashed arrows: supposed mtDNA introgression.
Mentions: The three major Mediterranean peninsulas represented important refugia during the last ice age for many different animal and plant species [1,84–86] and might have been of importance also for E. aurinia. Our analyses revealed independent genetic groups in south-western Europe (al1, al2) and Italy (al11) which respectively indicate an atlanto-Mediterranean and an adriato-Mediterranean glacial refugium for this species. There might also be several subrefugia in Iberia and Central Italy (Fig 6). The genetic structure of the neighbour joining tree based on allozyme data and the mtDNA haplotype network support the survival of E. aurinia in at least two subrefugia in western Iberia (al1) and south of the Pyrenees (al2) (Fig 6) during the last ice age. Such an East-West discontinuity has repeatedly been observed for Iberia [87–91]. Further, more subtle regional substructuring of the western Iberian group (al1) during the last ice age is conceivable based on the remarkable allozyme structure throughout this region. Such refugia-within-refugia structures have been repeatedly demonstrated in Iberia for different taxonomic groups [92–96]. Additionally, it is likely that the remarkable ecological differentiation of Iberian E. aurinia, e.g. the larvae feeding on Lonicera species thus linking the species to hedge structures [19,20], and not Succisa pratensis and Scabiosa columbaria as in most of the other lowland populations [21–24], is the result of long-lasting allopatry, perhaps in combination with different selective pressures acting in the Iberian and the other refugia.

Bottom Line: It is thus a rare example of a model organism that combines attributes of faunal elements from all three of these sources.The observed differences between allozymes and mtDNA most likely result from recent introgression of mtDNA into nuclear allozyme groups.Our results indicate discrepancies with the morphologically-based subspecies models, underlining the need to revise the current taxonomy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biogeography, Trier University, Trier, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Ice ages within Europe forced many species to retreat to refugia, of which three major biogeographic basic types can be distinguished: "Mediterranean", "Continental" and "Alpine / Arctic" species. However, this classification often fails to explain the complex phylogeography of European species with a wide range of latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Hence, we tested for the possibility that all three mentioned faunal elements are represented within one species. Our data was obtained by scoring 1,307 Euphydryas aurinia individuals (46 European locations) for 17 allozyme loci, and sequencing a subset of 492 individuals (21 sites) for a 626 base pairs COI fragment. Genetic diversity indices, F statistics, hierarchical analyses of molecular variance, individual-based clustering, and networks were used to explore the phylogeographic patterns. The COI fragment represented 18 haplotypes showing a strong geographic structure. All but one allozyme loci analysed were polymorphic with a mean FST of 0.20, supporting a pronounced among population structure. Interpretation of both genetic marker systems, using several analytical tools, calls for the recognition of twelve genetic groups. These analyses consistently distinguished different groups in Iberia (2), Italy, Provence, Alps (3), Slovenia, Carpathian Basin, the lowlands of West and Central Europe as well as Estonia, often with considerable additional substructures. The genetic data strongly support the hypothesis that E. aurinia survived the last glaciation in Mediterranean, extra-Mediterranean and perialpine refugia. It is thus a rare example of a model organism that combines attributes of faunal elements from all three of these sources. The observed differences between allozymes and mtDNA most likely result from recent introgression of mtDNA into nuclear allozyme groups. Our results indicate discrepancies with the morphologically-based subspecies models, underlining the need to revise the current taxonomy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus