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Traits of Heracleum sosnowskyi Plants in Monostand on Invaded Area.

Dalke IV, Chadin IF, Zakhozhiy IG, Malyshev RV, Maslova SP, Tabalenkova GN, Golovko TK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Understanding of the mechanisms leading to monostand formation can aid in determining the limitations of existing community ecology models and establishing an effective management plan for invasive species elimination.H. sosnowskyi showed high (several orders of magnitude higher than average taiga zone grasses) photosynthetic water use efficiency (6-7 μM CO2/μM H2O).Formation of H. sosnowskyi monostands occurs primarily in disturbed areas with relatively rich and well-moistened soils.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Republic, Russia.

ABSTRACT
The ability of giant hogweeds to form monodominant communities and even pure monostands in invaded areas has been well documented. Understanding of the mechanisms leading to monostand formation can aid in determining the limitations of existing community ecology models and establishing an effective management plan for invasive species elimination. The aim of this observational study was to investigate traits of Heracleum sosnowskyi plants (demography, canopy structure, morphology and physiology) of the plants in a pure stand in an invaded area useful for understanding potential monostand formation mechanisms. All measurements were performed in one typical Heracleum sosnowskyi monostand located in an abandoned agriculture field located in Syktyvkar city suburb (North-east Russia). This monostand consisted of five main plant growth stages: seed, seedling, juvenile, vegetative adult, and generative adult. Plants of all stages began to grow simultaneously shortly after the snowmelt, at the same time as spring ephemeral plant species grew. The density of generative plants did not change during the vegetation period, but the density of the other plant stages rapidly decreased after the formation of a tall (up to 2-2.5 m) and dense (Leaf area index up to 6.5) canopy. The canopy captured approximately 97% of the light. H. sosnowskyi showed high (several orders of magnitude higher than average taiga zone grasses) photosynthetic water use efficiency (6-7 μM CO2/μM H2O). Formation of H. sosnowskyi monostands occurs primarily in disturbed areas with relatively rich and well-moistened soils. Early commencement of growth, rapid formation of a dense canopy, high efficiency of light and water use during photosynthesis, ability of young plants to survive in low light conditions, rapid recovery of above-ground plant parts after damage, and the high density of the soil seed bank are the most important traits of H. sosnowskyi plants for monostand formation in invaded areas.

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Heracleum sosnowskyi soil seed bank dynamics over a 12-month period (September 2012 to September 2013).
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pone.0142833.g001: Heracleum sosnowskyi soil seed bank dynamics over a 12-month period (September 2012 to September 2013).

Mentions: The soil seed bank contained up to 20000 seeds/m2 in the upper 15 cm of soil by the end of the growing season (Fig 1). The distribution of seeds in the vertical direction was heterogeneous: 80% of the seeds were found between 0 and 5 cm, 19% of seeds in the next layer (5–10 cm) and no more than 2% of seeds were at a depth of 10–15 cm. The mass of one air-dried seed was 1.7–20.6 mg (with a median of 13.0 mg). The area of the one flat side of the seed was 43–99 mm2 (with a median of 64 mm2). Accounting for the size of the soil seed-bank in the H. sosnowskyi monostand, there was about 1 m2 of seeds per 1 m2 of soil surface. The majority of the soil bank was replenished in autumn, after seed falling. The soil seed bank size did not change until April (Fig 1), when most part of the seeds had begun to germinate. Some of the seeds germinated below 1 m of snow cover, when the temperature of the frozen topsoil layer was -0.5°C. These seeds were able to develop well-formed seed lobes after being placed at room temperature.


Traits of Heracleum sosnowskyi Plants in Monostand on Invaded Area.

Dalke IV, Chadin IF, Zakhozhiy IG, Malyshev RV, Maslova SP, Tabalenkova GN, Golovko TK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Heracleum sosnowskyi soil seed bank dynamics over a 12-month period (September 2012 to September 2013).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643873&req=5

pone.0142833.g001: Heracleum sosnowskyi soil seed bank dynamics over a 12-month period (September 2012 to September 2013).
Mentions: The soil seed bank contained up to 20000 seeds/m2 in the upper 15 cm of soil by the end of the growing season (Fig 1). The distribution of seeds in the vertical direction was heterogeneous: 80% of the seeds were found between 0 and 5 cm, 19% of seeds in the next layer (5–10 cm) and no more than 2% of seeds were at a depth of 10–15 cm. The mass of one air-dried seed was 1.7–20.6 mg (with a median of 13.0 mg). The area of the one flat side of the seed was 43–99 mm2 (with a median of 64 mm2). Accounting for the size of the soil seed-bank in the H. sosnowskyi monostand, there was about 1 m2 of seeds per 1 m2 of soil surface. The majority of the soil bank was replenished in autumn, after seed falling. The soil seed bank size did not change until April (Fig 1), when most part of the seeds had begun to germinate. Some of the seeds germinated below 1 m of snow cover, when the temperature of the frozen topsoil layer was -0.5°C. These seeds were able to develop well-formed seed lobes after being placed at room temperature.

Bottom Line: Understanding of the mechanisms leading to monostand formation can aid in determining the limitations of existing community ecology models and establishing an effective management plan for invasive species elimination.H. sosnowskyi showed high (several orders of magnitude higher than average taiga zone grasses) photosynthetic water use efficiency (6-7 μM CO2/μM H2O).Formation of H. sosnowskyi monostands occurs primarily in disturbed areas with relatively rich and well-moistened soils.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Republic, Russia.

ABSTRACT
The ability of giant hogweeds to form monodominant communities and even pure monostands in invaded areas has been well documented. Understanding of the mechanisms leading to monostand formation can aid in determining the limitations of existing community ecology models and establishing an effective management plan for invasive species elimination. The aim of this observational study was to investigate traits of Heracleum sosnowskyi plants (demography, canopy structure, morphology and physiology) of the plants in a pure stand in an invaded area useful for understanding potential monostand formation mechanisms. All measurements were performed in one typical Heracleum sosnowskyi monostand located in an abandoned agriculture field located in Syktyvkar city suburb (North-east Russia). This monostand consisted of five main plant growth stages: seed, seedling, juvenile, vegetative adult, and generative adult. Plants of all stages began to grow simultaneously shortly after the snowmelt, at the same time as spring ephemeral plant species grew. The density of generative plants did not change during the vegetation period, but the density of the other plant stages rapidly decreased after the formation of a tall (up to 2-2.5 m) and dense (Leaf area index up to 6.5) canopy. The canopy captured approximately 97% of the light. H. sosnowskyi showed high (several orders of magnitude higher than average taiga zone grasses) photosynthetic water use efficiency (6-7 μM CO2/μM H2O). Formation of H. sosnowskyi monostands occurs primarily in disturbed areas with relatively rich and well-moistened soils. Early commencement of growth, rapid formation of a dense canopy, high efficiency of light and water use during photosynthesis, ability of young plants to survive in low light conditions, rapid recovery of above-ground plant parts after damage, and the high density of the soil seed bank are the most important traits of H. sosnowskyi plants for monostand formation in invaded areas.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus