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Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East.

Lelieveld J, Beirle S, Hörmann C, Stenchikov G, Wagner T - Sci Adv (2015)

Bottom Line: Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities.We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East.Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany. ; The Cyprus Institute, 1645 Nicosia, Cyprus. ; King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tropospheric NO2 over the Middle East.NO2 column densities in 1015 molecules/cm2 observed by OMI, averaged over the period 2005–2014.
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Figure 1: Tropospheric NO2 over the Middle East.NO2 column densities in 1015 molecules/cm2 observed by OMI, averaged over the period 2005–2014.

Mentions: Figure 1 gives an overview of tropospheric NO2 column densities over the region considered, between 20° and 40°N latitude and between 20° and 60°E longitude, home to about 350 million people at the crossroads between Europe, Asia, and Africa. The highest NO2 is observed over Riyadh, Tehran and its surroundings, along the Arabian Gulf, and in Cairo and northern Egypt. Previous studies have derived significant upward NO2 trends until about 2010 or 2011 over several cities in this region, for example, about 5 to 7%/year in Cairo, 2 to 8%/year in Tehran, 7 to 10%/year in Damascus, 10 to 20%/year in Baghdad, 4 to 5%/year in Jeddah, and 6 to 7%/year in Riyadh (17, 18).


Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East.

Lelieveld J, Beirle S, Hörmann C, Stenchikov G, Wagner T - Sci Adv (2015)

Tropospheric NO2 over the Middle East.NO2 column densities in 1015 molecules/cm2 observed by OMI, averaged over the period 2005–2014.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643803&req=5

Figure 1: Tropospheric NO2 over the Middle East.NO2 column densities in 1015 molecules/cm2 observed by OMI, averaged over the period 2005–2014.
Mentions: Figure 1 gives an overview of tropospheric NO2 column densities over the region considered, between 20° and 40°N latitude and between 20° and 60°E longitude, home to about 350 million people at the crossroads between Europe, Asia, and Africa. The highest NO2 is observed over Riyadh, Tehran and its surroundings, along the Arabian Gulf, and in Cairo and northern Egypt. Previous studies have derived significant upward NO2 trends until about 2010 or 2011 over several cities in this region, for example, about 5 to 7%/year in Cairo, 2 to 8%/year in Tehran, 7 to 10%/year in Damascus, 10 to 20%/year in Baghdad, 4 to 5%/year in Jeddah, and 6 to 7%/year in Riyadh (17, 18).

Bottom Line: Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities.We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East.Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany. ; The Cyprus Institute, 1645 Nicosia, Cyprus. ; King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus