Limits...
Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits.

Zhang C, Zou CL, Zhao Y, Dong CH, Wei C, Wang H, Liu Y, Guo GC, Yao J, Zhao YS - Sci Adv (2015)

Bottom Line: The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device.On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units.Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

ABSTRACT
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 10(5), which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Organic PICs based on printed microstructures.(A) Microscopy image of a printed microring resonator coupled with a tangentially connected 1D waveguide (top) with two laser-burned termini (marked with red rectangles) for light outcoupling. (Bottom) The resonance modes generated by exciting the microring were collected by the waveguide and guided to the termini. (B) Corresponding spectrum from the laser-burned slot showing the guided ring resonance modes from the directional output in the coupled optical waveguide. (C) Schematic of an as-printed add-drop filter based on the coupling between 1D waveguides and microring resonators. When mixed light signals (white arrow) are inputted from the upper waveguide, the wavelength at resonance (red arrows) is guided into module I, whereas another wavelength goes into module II (blue arrows) on its distinct resonance modes. The signals can thus be distributed into designated ports, and the residual light would pass through the top bus (green arrow). See fig. S12 for details. (D) Microscopy image of coupled resonators obtained by printing two conjugated microrings at a distance of ~500 nm (top). (Bottom) The left ring was partially excited, and the right ring was illuminated through resonator coupling. The output spectrum was collected from the point of joining, indicated with a red square. (E) Corresponding spectrum shows enhancement of modulated resonance modes from the Vernier effect in coupled cavities. (F) Schematic of printed CROWs for optical memory based on programmable printed microring chains. The CROW structure produces a newly generated optical eigenmode (yellow) that can confine photons inside by coupling the resonance modes in each ring. This eigenmode brings isolated states to memorize light signals, similar to energy levels in atom clusters. More eigenmodes at different wavelengths can be obtained from the coupling between vertical ring chains and horizontal ring chains, which are shown in detail in fig. S13.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643768&req=5

Figure 4: Organic PICs based on printed microstructures.(A) Microscopy image of a printed microring resonator coupled with a tangentially connected 1D waveguide (top) with two laser-burned termini (marked with red rectangles) for light outcoupling. (Bottom) The resonance modes generated by exciting the microring were collected by the waveguide and guided to the termini. (B) Corresponding spectrum from the laser-burned slot showing the guided ring resonance modes from the directional output in the coupled optical waveguide. (C) Schematic of an as-printed add-drop filter based on the coupling between 1D waveguides and microring resonators. When mixed light signals (white arrow) are inputted from the upper waveguide, the wavelength at resonance (red arrows) is guided into module I, whereas another wavelength goes into module II (blue arrows) on its distinct resonance modes. The signals can thus be distributed into designated ports, and the residual light would pass through the top bus (green arrow). See fig. S12 for details. (D) Microscopy image of coupled resonators obtained by printing two conjugated microrings at a distance of ~500 nm (top). (Bottom) The left ring was partially excited, and the right ring was illuminated through resonator coupling. The output spectrum was collected from the point of joining, indicated with a red square. (E) Corresponding spectrum shows enhancement of modulated resonance modes from the Vernier effect in coupled cavities. (F) Schematic of printed CROWs for optical memory based on programmable printed microring chains. The CROW structure produces a newly generated optical eigenmode (yellow) that can confine photons inside by coupling the resonance modes in each ring. This eigenmode brings isolated states to memorize light signals, similar to energy levels in atom clusters. More eigenmodes at different wavelengths can be obtained from the coupling between vertical ring chains and horizontal ring chains, which are shown in detail in fig. S13.

Mentions: As the microring laser produced initial signals for next-level devices, we explored light signal processing among ring resonators and microwire waveguides (29) on the basis of the scalability of printed photonic circuits (see Materials and Methods). Figure 4A shows that ring resonator modes are efficiently coupled into a tangentially connected microwire waveguide, which serves as an on-chip input/output port. The efficient coupling between them results in a highly directional collection of microring resonance modes (Fig. 4B) and thus allows for on-chip modulation of optical resonance in input/output light. The incident light can be selectively confined and can illuminate the microring when its wavelength is found at the resonance of the optical mode (Fig. 2), resulting in the control of output light signals passing through the entire circuit. Therefore, by further designing the arrangement of microrings and microwires, we can realize the optical processing of different resonance modes on this type of printed chip. Accordingly, we designed and fabricated a light add-drop filter (30) composed of three input/output printed 1D waveguide ports and two microring processing modules (Fig. 4C), which can be applied as a multiplexer for the processing of complex light signals (fig. S16). In fact, the compact and scalable add-drop filters fabricated with the printing technique would support running large-scale photonic circuits that can separate light signals at picometer-level spectral resolution (31).


Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits.

Zhang C, Zou CL, Zhao Y, Dong CH, Wei C, Wang H, Liu Y, Guo GC, Yao J, Zhao YS - Sci Adv (2015)

Organic PICs based on printed microstructures.(A) Microscopy image of a printed microring resonator coupled with a tangentially connected 1D waveguide (top) with two laser-burned termini (marked with red rectangles) for light outcoupling. (Bottom) The resonance modes generated by exciting the microring were collected by the waveguide and guided to the termini. (B) Corresponding spectrum from the laser-burned slot showing the guided ring resonance modes from the directional output in the coupled optical waveguide. (C) Schematic of an as-printed add-drop filter based on the coupling between 1D waveguides and microring resonators. When mixed light signals (white arrow) are inputted from the upper waveguide, the wavelength at resonance (red arrows) is guided into module I, whereas another wavelength goes into module II (blue arrows) on its distinct resonance modes. The signals can thus be distributed into designated ports, and the residual light would pass through the top bus (green arrow). See fig. S12 for details. (D) Microscopy image of coupled resonators obtained by printing two conjugated microrings at a distance of ~500 nm (top). (Bottom) The left ring was partially excited, and the right ring was illuminated through resonator coupling. The output spectrum was collected from the point of joining, indicated with a red square. (E) Corresponding spectrum shows enhancement of modulated resonance modes from the Vernier effect in coupled cavities. (F) Schematic of printed CROWs for optical memory based on programmable printed microring chains. The CROW structure produces a newly generated optical eigenmode (yellow) that can confine photons inside by coupling the resonance modes in each ring. This eigenmode brings isolated states to memorize light signals, similar to energy levels in atom clusters. More eigenmodes at different wavelengths can be obtained from the coupling between vertical ring chains and horizontal ring chains, which are shown in detail in fig. S13.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643768&req=5

Figure 4: Organic PICs based on printed microstructures.(A) Microscopy image of a printed microring resonator coupled with a tangentially connected 1D waveguide (top) with two laser-burned termini (marked with red rectangles) for light outcoupling. (Bottom) The resonance modes generated by exciting the microring were collected by the waveguide and guided to the termini. (B) Corresponding spectrum from the laser-burned slot showing the guided ring resonance modes from the directional output in the coupled optical waveguide. (C) Schematic of an as-printed add-drop filter based on the coupling between 1D waveguides and microring resonators. When mixed light signals (white arrow) are inputted from the upper waveguide, the wavelength at resonance (red arrows) is guided into module I, whereas another wavelength goes into module II (blue arrows) on its distinct resonance modes. The signals can thus be distributed into designated ports, and the residual light would pass through the top bus (green arrow). See fig. S12 for details. (D) Microscopy image of coupled resonators obtained by printing two conjugated microrings at a distance of ~500 nm (top). (Bottom) The left ring was partially excited, and the right ring was illuminated through resonator coupling. The output spectrum was collected from the point of joining, indicated with a red square. (E) Corresponding spectrum shows enhancement of modulated resonance modes from the Vernier effect in coupled cavities. (F) Schematic of printed CROWs for optical memory based on programmable printed microring chains. The CROW structure produces a newly generated optical eigenmode (yellow) that can confine photons inside by coupling the resonance modes in each ring. This eigenmode brings isolated states to memorize light signals, similar to energy levels in atom clusters. More eigenmodes at different wavelengths can be obtained from the coupling between vertical ring chains and horizontal ring chains, which are shown in detail in fig. S13.
Mentions: As the microring laser produced initial signals for next-level devices, we explored light signal processing among ring resonators and microwire waveguides (29) on the basis of the scalability of printed photonic circuits (see Materials and Methods). Figure 4A shows that ring resonator modes are efficiently coupled into a tangentially connected microwire waveguide, which serves as an on-chip input/output port. The efficient coupling between them results in a highly directional collection of microring resonance modes (Fig. 4B) and thus allows for on-chip modulation of optical resonance in input/output light. The incident light can be selectively confined and can illuminate the microring when its wavelength is found at the resonance of the optical mode (Fig. 2), resulting in the control of output light signals passing through the entire circuit. Therefore, by further designing the arrangement of microrings and microwires, we can realize the optical processing of different resonance modes on this type of printed chip. Accordingly, we designed and fabricated a light add-drop filter (30) composed of three input/output printed 1D waveguide ports and two microring processing modules (Fig. 4C), which can be applied as a multiplexer for the processing of complex light signals (fig. S16). In fact, the compact and scalable add-drop filters fabricated with the printing technique would support running large-scale photonic circuits that can separate light signals at picometer-level spectral resolution (31).

Bottom Line: The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device.On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units.Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

ABSTRACT
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 10(5), which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus