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Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits.

Zhang C, Zou CL, Zhao Y, Dong CH, Wei C, Wang H, Liu Y, Guo GC, Yao J, Zhao YS - Sci Adv (2015)

Bottom Line: The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device.On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units.Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

ABSTRACT
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 10(5), which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Design and fabrication of a wafer-scale organic printed photonic chip.(A) Schematic of the fabrication of a photonic circuit by confining photon flows in printed structures. A thin film was spin-coated from a polymer solution and locally dissolved by printing solvent droplets, resulting in various microscale structures for light transport. (B) Image of a free-standing photonic chip peeled off from the substrate, indicating the flexibility and transparency of the printed photonic chip. A yellow-dye compound was doped into the chip film. (C) Image of large-scale ordered optical structures on a 1-inch wafer. (D) Microscope image showing printed microring chains of uniform size and well-defined pattern. (E) AFM image of a typical self-assembled polymer structure after printing showing the smoothness and height of the structure over the surrounding film.
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Figure 1: Design and fabrication of a wafer-scale organic printed photonic chip.(A) Schematic of the fabrication of a photonic circuit by confining photon flows in printed structures. A thin film was spin-coated from a polymer solution and locally dissolved by printing solvent droplets, resulting in various microscale structures for light transport. (B) Image of a free-standing photonic chip peeled off from the substrate, indicating the flexibility and transparency of the printed photonic chip. A yellow-dye compound was doped into the chip film. (C) Image of large-scale ordered optical structures on a 1-inch wafer. (D) Microscope image showing printed microring chains of uniform size and well-defined pattern. (E) AFM image of a typical self-assembled polymer structure after printing showing the smoothness and height of the structure over the surrounding film.

Mentions: Organic microstructure patterns were obtained by printing solvent droplets on a polymer thin film (see Materials and Methods and fig. S1) (11). The coffee-ring effect (25) enabled jetted droplets to partially dissolve the polymer film, resulting in higher ring-shaped structures at the boundary of droplets on the substrate (Fig. 1A). The process included the local dissolution of the micrometer-sized film and the sequential rebuilding of the microstructure, and can be applied to most of the soluble polymers on various substrates (fig. S2). Microrings had a typical radius of ~50 μm, a width of ~5 μm, and a height of about 500 nm. In addition to the microrings, straight microwires for optical waveguiding were also printed (fig. S3). Therefore, this strategy can be used to program arrays of photonic structures on a wafer. Figure 1B shows that the films can be peeled off as free-standing flexible photonic chips for 3D integration and hybridization with other systems. The microscopic structures therein can be patterned over several centimeters (Fig. 1, C and D). The atomic force microscopy (AFM) image in Fig. 1E (see also fig. S4) shows that the surface roughness of these highly uniform microstructures is <1 nm, which benefits from the self-assembly of polymer chains under the surface tension of solvent droplets.


Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits.

Zhang C, Zou CL, Zhao Y, Dong CH, Wei C, Wang H, Liu Y, Guo GC, Yao J, Zhao YS - Sci Adv (2015)

Design and fabrication of a wafer-scale organic printed photonic chip.(A) Schematic of the fabrication of a photonic circuit by confining photon flows in printed structures. A thin film was spin-coated from a polymer solution and locally dissolved by printing solvent droplets, resulting in various microscale structures for light transport. (B) Image of a free-standing photonic chip peeled off from the substrate, indicating the flexibility and transparency of the printed photonic chip. A yellow-dye compound was doped into the chip film. (C) Image of large-scale ordered optical structures on a 1-inch wafer. (D) Microscope image showing printed microring chains of uniform size and well-defined pattern. (E) AFM image of a typical self-assembled polymer structure after printing showing the smoothness and height of the structure over the surrounding film.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643768&req=5

Figure 1: Design and fabrication of a wafer-scale organic printed photonic chip.(A) Schematic of the fabrication of a photonic circuit by confining photon flows in printed structures. A thin film was spin-coated from a polymer solution and locally dissolved by printing solvent droplets, resulting in various microscale structures for light transport. (B) Image of a free-standing photonic chip peeled off from the substrate, indicating the flexibility and transparency of the printed photonic chip. A yellow-dye compound was doped into the chip film. (C) Image of large-scale ordered optical structures on a 1-inch wafer. (D) Microscope image showing printed microring chains of uniform size and well-defined pattern. (E) AFM image of a typical self-assembled polymer structure after printing showing the smoothness and height of the structure over the surrounding film.
Mentions: Organic microstructure patterns were obtained by printing solvent droplets on a polymer thin film (see Materials and Methods and fig. S1) (11). The coffee-ring effect (25) enabled jetted droplets to partially dissolve the polymer film, resulting in higher ring-shaped structures at the boundary of droplets on the substrate (Fig. 1A). The process included the local dissolution of the micrometer-sized film and the sequential rebuilding of the microstructure, and can be applied to most of the soluble polymers on various substrates (fig. S2). Microrings had a typical radius of ~50 μm, a width of ~5 μm, and a height of about 500 nm. In addition to the microrings, straight microwires for optical waveguiding were also printed (fig. S3). Therefore, this strategy can be used to program arrays of photonic structures on a wafer. Figure 1B shows that the films can be peeled off as free-standing flexible photonic chips for 3D integration and hybridization with other systems. The microscopic structures therein can be patterned over several centimeters (Fig. 1, C and D). The atomic force microscopy (AFM) image in Fig. 1E (see also fig. S4) shows that the surface roughness of these highly uniform microstructures is <1 nm, which benefits from the self-assembly of polymer chains under the surface tension of solvent droplets.

Bottom Line: The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device.On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units.Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

ABSTRACT
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 10(5), which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus