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Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

O'Connell J, Bradter U, Benton TG - ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens (2015)

Bottom Line: A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909).We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m(2).The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

ABSTRACT

Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m(2). The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of the study area. Designated areas outlined where; CountrySide Stewardship (CSS)/Environmental Stewardship (ES), English Habitat Network (EHN), Mire Fen Bog (MFB) and Lowland meadows/Lowland dry acid grassland (BAP priority habitats). Strategi data downloaded from the EDINA (Edinburgh Data and Information Access) Digimap OS service. ©Crown Copyright/database right 2009. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. Cities Revealed® aerial photography copyright The GeoInformation® Group 2012.
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f0005: Location of the study area. Designated areas outlined where; CountrySide Stewardship (CSS)/Environmental Stewardship (ES), English Habitat Network (EHN), Mire Fen Bog (MFB) and Lowland meadows/Lowland dry acid grassland (BAP priority habitats). Strategi data downloaded from the EDINA (Edinburgh Data and Information Access) Digimap OS service. ©Crown Copyright/database right 2009. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. Cities Revealed® aerial photography copyright The GeoInformation® Group 2012.

Mentions: The study area was located in East Anglia, England (52°19′07″ N, 0°49′43″ E) in an intensively managed agricultural landscape of arable crops and temperate grassland over a mosaic of lime rich loam, clay loam and sandy soils (NSRI, 2011). The topography of the site was undulating with an elevation range of 22–73 m, mean of 45 m and total area of 10,029 ha. Annual rainfall for the region was 810 mm, with an average of 130 days of rain per year (Met, 2012). Despite being intensively managed, the site contained various designated areas (Fig. 1) including; 12.4% under the England Habitat Network (Catchpole, 2007), 5.9% under Countryside Stewardship/Environmental Stewardship and 0.3% under priority grassland habitat via the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) (JNCC, 2007).


Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

O'Connell J, Bradter U, Benton TG - ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens (2015)

Location of the study area. Designated areas outlined where; CountrySide Stewardship (CSS)/Environmental Stewardship (ES), English Habitat Network (EHN), Mire Fen Bog (MFB) and Lowland meadows/Lowland dry acid grassland (BAP priority habitats). Strategi data downloaded from the EDINA (Edinburgh Data and Information Access) Digimap OS service. ©Crown Copyright/database right 2009. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. Cities Revealed® aerial photography copyright The GeoInformation® Group 2012.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4643754&req=5

f0005: Location of the study area. Designated areas outlined where; CountrySide Stewardship (CSS)/Environmental Stewardship (ES), English Habitat Network (EHN), Mire Fen Bog (MFB) and Lowland meadows/Lowland dry acid grassland (BAP priority habitats). Strategi data downloaded from the EDINA (Edinburgh Data and Information Access) Digimap OS service. ©Crown Copyright/database right 2009. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. Cities Revealed® aerial photography copyright The GeoInformation® Group 2012.
Mentions: The study area was located in East Anglia, England (52°19′07″ N, 0°49′43″ E) in an intensively managed agricultural landscape of arable crops and temperate grassland over a mosaic of lime rich loam, clay loam and sandy soils (NSRI, 2011). The topography of the site was undulating with an elevation range of 22–73 m, mean of 45 m and total area of 10,029 ha. Annual rainfall for the region was 810 mm, with an average of 130 days of rain per year (Met, 2012). Despite being intensively managed, the site contained various designated areas (Fig. 1) including; 12.4% under the England Habitat Network (Catchpole, 2007), 5.9% under Countryside Stewardship/Environmental Stewardship and 0.3% under priority grassland habitat via the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) (JNCC, 2007).

Bottom Line: A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909).We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m(2).The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

ABSTRACT

Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m(2). The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus