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Integration, Disintegration, and Self-Similarity: Characterizing the Scales of Shape Variation in Landmark Data.

Bookstein FL - Evol Biol (2015)

Bottom Line: Covariance analyses of interpoint distances, such as the Olson-Miller factor approach of the 1950's, cannot validly be extended to handle the spatial structure of complete morphometric descriptions; neither can analyses of shape coordinates that ignore the mean form.The paper begins with a seemingly innocent toy example, uncovers an unexpected invariance as an example of the general manipulation proposed, then applies the new modeling tactic to three data sets from the existing morphometric literature.Conclusions follow regarding findings and methodology alike.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria ; Department of Statistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA USA.

ABSTRACT

The biologist examining samples of multicellular organisms in anatomical detail must already have an intuitive concept of morphological integration. But quantifying that intuition has always been fraught with difficulties and paradoxes, especially for the anatomically labelled Cartesian coordinate data that drive today's toolkits of geometric morphometrics. Covariance analyses of interpoint distances, such as the Olson-Miller factor approach of the 1950's, cannot validly be extended to handle the spatial structure of complete morphometric descriptions; neither can analyses of shape coordinates that ignore the mean form. This paper introduces a formal parametric quantification of integration by analogy with how time series are approached in modern paleobiology. Over there, a finding of trend falls under one tail of a distribution for which stasis comprises the other tail. The hypothesis separating these two classes of finding is the random walks, which are self-similar, meaning that they show no interpretable structure at any temporal scale. Trend and stasis are the two contrasting ways of deviating from this . The present manuscript introduces an analogous maneuver for the spatial aspects of ontogenetic or phylogenetic organismal studies: a subspace within the space of shape covariance structures for which the standard isotropic (Procrustes) model lies at one extreme of a characteristic parameter and the strongest growth-gradient models at the other. In-between lies the suggested new construct, the spatially self-similar processes that can be generated within the standard morphometric toolkit by a startlingly simple algebraic manipulation of partial warp scores. In this view, integration and "disintegration" as in the Procrustes model are two modes of organismal variation according to which morphometric data can deviate from this common , which, as in the temporal domain, is formally featureless, incapable of supporting any summary beyond a single parameter for amplitude. In practice the classification can proceed by examining the regression coefficient for log partial warp variance against log bending energy in the standard thin-plate spline setup. The self-similarity model, for which the regression slope is precisely [Formula: see text] corresponds well to the background against which the evolutionist's or systematist's a-priori notion of "local shape features" can be delineated. Integration as detected by the regression slope can be visualized by the first relative intrinsic warp (first relative eigenvector of the nonaffine part of a shape coordinate configuration with respect to bending energy) and may be summarized by the corresponding quadratic growth gradient. The paper begins with a seemingly innocent toy example, uncovers an unexpected invariance as an example of the general manipulation proposed, then applies the new modeling tactic to three data sets from the existing morphometric literature. Conclusions follow regarding findings and methodology alike.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The two nontrivial principal warps for a quincunx of landmarks (the shape of the five-spot of a die), as represented by thin-plate splines. Above, normed to the same Procrustes length; below, to the same bending energy, which deflates the more bent principal warp (right column) by a factor of . After the deflation, the visual density of grid lines is much more nearly equal at their loci of greatest density (left column, center left; right column, upper center). Informally, bending energy is the integrated squared rate of change of this pattern of densities when it is drawn all the way out to infinity in all directions
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Fig2: The two nontrivial principal warps for a quincunx of landmarks (the shape of the five-spot of a die), as represented by thin-plate splines. Above, normed to the same Procrustes length; below, to the same bending energy, which deflates the more bent principal warp (right column) by a factor of . After the deflation, the visual density of grid lines is much more nearly equal at their loci of greatest density (left column, center left; right column, upper center). Informally, bending energy is the integrated squared rate of change of this pattern of densities when it is drawn all the way out to infinity in all directions

Mentions: How is it that deflation by bending energy serves to equalize phenomena at different scales? Let’s look at an even simpler example, the bending energy for a quincunx of landmarks (the pattern of dots on the side of a die that has five of them). From the formula to follow in Sect. "A Theorem with Its Corollary Algorithms", this will prove to be proportional to the quadratic form\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\begin{aligned} B_Q=\left( \begin{array}{ccccc} 2&-1&2&-1&-2\\ -1&2&-1&2&-2\\ 2&-1&2&-1&-2\\ -1&2&-1&2&-2\\ -2&-2&-2&-2&8\\ \end{array}\right) , \end{aligned}$$\end{document}BQ=2-12-1-2-12-12-22-12-1-2-12-12-2-2-2-2-28,for which the only eigenvectors of nonzero eigenvalue are the patterns and (The central element of the quincunx corresponds to row or column 5 in these expressions, and for the other landmarks have been numbered consecutively around the outline.) After these vectors are normalized to unit length we have The two specific bending energies are thus in the ratio of 3 to 5, as shown in Fig. 2.Fig. 2


Integration, Disintegration, and Self-Similarity: Characterizing the Scales of Shape Variation in Landmark Data.

Bookstein FL - Evol Biol (2015)

The two nontrivial principal warps for a quincunx of landmarks (the shape of the five-spot of a die), as represented by thin-plate splines. Above, normed to the same Procrustes length; below, to the same bending energy, which deflates the more bent principal warp (right column) by a factor of . After the deflation, the visual density of grid lines is much more nearly equal at their loci of greatest density (left column, center left; right column, upper center). Informally, bending energy is the integrated squared rate of change of this pattern of densities when it is drawn all the way out to infinity in all directions
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4642606&req=5

Fig2: The two nontrivial principal warps for a quincunx of landmarks (the shape of the five-spot of a die), as represented by thin-plate splines. Above, normed to the same Procrustes length; below, to the same bending energy, which deflates the more bent principal warp (right column) by a factor of . After the deflation, the visual density of grid lines is much more nearly equal at their loci of greatest density (left column, center left; right column, upper center). Informally, bending energy is the integrated squared rate of change of this pattern of densities when it is drawn all the way out to infinity in all directions
Mentions: How is it that deflation by bending energy serves to equalize phenomena at different scales? Let’s look at an even simpler example, the bending energy for a quincunx of landmarks (the pattern of dots on the side of a die that has five of them). From the formula to follow in Sect. "A Theorem with Its Corollary Algorithms", this will prove to be proportional to the quadratic form\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\begin{aligned} B_Q=\left( \begin{array}{ccccc} 2&-1&2&-1&-2\\ -1&2&-1&2&-2\\ 2&-1&2&-1&-2\\ -1&2&-1&2&-2\\ -2&-2&-2&-2&8\\ \end{array}\right) , \end{aligned}$$\end{document}BQ=2-12-1-2-12-12-22-12-1-2-12-12-2-2-2-2-28,for which the only eigenvectors of nonzero eigenvalue are the patterns and (The central element of the quincunx corresponds to row or column 5 in these expressions, and for the other landmarks have been numbered consecutively around the outline.) After these vectors are normalized to unit length we have The two specific bending energies are thus in the ratio of 3 to 5, as shown in Fig. 2.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Covariance analyses of interpoint distances, such as the Olson-Miller factor approach of the 1950's, cannot validly be extended to handle the spatial structure of complete morphometric descriptions; neither can analyses of shape coordinates that ignore the mean form.The paper begins with a seemingly innocent toy example, uncovers an unexpected invariance as an example of the general manipulation proposed, then applies the new modeling tactic to three data sets from the existing morphometric literature.Conclusions follow regarding findings and methodology alike.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria ; Department of Statistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA USA.

ABSTRACT

The biologist examining samples of multicellular organisms in anatomical detail must already have an intuitive concept of morphological integration. But quantifying that intuition has always been fraught with difficulties and paradoxes, especially for the anatomically labelled Cartesian coordinate data that drive today's toolkits of geometric morphometrics. Covariance analyses of interpoint distances, such as the Olson-Miller factor approach of the 1950's, cannot validly be extended to handle the spatial structure of complete morphometric descriptions; neither can analyses of shape coordinates that ignore the mean form. This paper introduces a formal parametric quantification of integration by analogy with how time series are approached in modern paleobiology. Over there, a finding of trend falls under one tail of a distribution for which stasis comprises the other tail. The hypothesis separating these two classes of finding is the random walks, which are self-similar, meaning that they show no interpretable structure at any temporal scale. Trend and stasis are the two contrasting ways of deviating from this . The present manuscript introduces an analogous maneuver for the spatial aspects of ontogenetic or phylogenetic organismal studies: a subspace within the space of shape covariance structures for which the standard isotropic (Procrustes) model lies at one extreme of a characteristic parameter and the strongest growth-gradient models at the other. In-between lies the suggested new construct, the spatially self-similar processes that can be generated within the standard morphometric toolkit by a startlingly simple algebraic manipulation of partial warp scores. In this view, integration and "disintegration" as in the Procrustes model are two modes of organismal variation according to which morphometric data can deviate from this common , which, as in the temporal domain, is formally featureless, incapable of supporting any summary beyond a single parameter for amplitude. In practice the classification can proceed by examining the regression coefficient for log partial warp variance against log bending energy in the standard thin-plate spline setup. The self-similarity model, for which the regression slope is precisely [Formula: see text] corresponds well to the background against which the evolutionist's or systematist's a-priori notion of "local shape features" can be delineated. Integration as detected by the regression slope can be visualized by the first relative intrinsic warp (first relative eigenvector of the nonaffine part of a shape coordinate configuration with respect to bending energy) and may be summarized by the corresponding quadratic growth gradient. The paper begins with a seemingly innocent toy example, uncovers an unexpected invariance as an example of the general manipulation proposed, then applies the new modeling tactic to three data sets from the existing morphometric literature. Conclusions follow regarding findings and methodology alike.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus