Limits...
Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

Baniqued PL, Allen CM, Kranz MB, Johnson K, Sipolins A, Dickens C, Ward N, Geyer A, Kramer AF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking.Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups.A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer), many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and "Mind Frontiers," a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf) tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control). After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool.

No MeSH data available.


Mind Frontiers tasks.Screenshots of Mind Frontiers games: Top to bottom, left to right: Supply Run, Riding Shotgun, Sentry Duty, Safe Cracker, Irrigator, Pen ‘Em Up.
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pone.0142169.g001: Mind Frontiers tasks.Screenshots of Mind Frontiers games: Top to bottom, left to right: Supply Run, Riding Shotgun, Sentry Duty, Safe Cracker, Irrigator, Pen ‘Em Up.

Mentions: The Mind Frontiers group completed six adaptive training tasks (Table 2 and Fig 1) in each training session. All games were programmed by Aptima, Inc. using the Unity game engine and were administered using the Samsung Google Nexus 10 tablet. Table 2 provides a summary of each game and its source from previous literature. These games were selected based on their known associations (psychometric properties, training-related improvements) with the following abilities: reasoning/Gf, working memory, visuospatial reasoning, inductive reasoning, and task switching.


Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

Baniqued PL, Allen CM, Kranz MB, Johnson K, Sipolins A, Dickens C, Ward N, Geyer A, Kramer AF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mind Frontiers tasks.Screenshots of Mind Frontiers games: Top to bottom, left to right: Supply Run, Riding Shotgun, Sentry Duty, Safe Cracker, Irrigator, Pen ‘Em Up.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4640538&req=5

pone.0142169.g001: Mind Frontiers tasks.Screenshots of Mind Frontiers games: Top to bottom, left to right: Supply Run, Riding Shotgun, Sentry Duty, Safe Cracker, Irrigator, Pen ‘Em Up.
Mentions: The Mind Frontiers group completed six adaptive training tasks (Table 2 and Fig 1) in each training session. All games were programmed by Aptima, Inc. using the Unity game engine and were administered using the Samsung Google Nexus 10 tablet. Table 2 provides a summary of each game and its source from previous literature. These games were selected based on their known associations (psychometric properties, training-related improvements) with the following abilities: reasoning/Gf, working memory, visuospatial reasoning, inductive reasoning, and task switching.

Bottom Line: No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking.Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups.A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer), many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and "Mind Frontiers," a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf) tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control). After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool.

No MeSH data available.