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Global Transcriptome Analysis of the Tentacle of the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata Using Deep Sequencing and Expressed Sequence Tags: Insight into the Toxin- and Degenerative Disease-Related Transcripts.

Liu G, Zhou Y, Liu D, Wang Q, Ruan Z, He Q, Zhang L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Of these, 21,357 unigenes had homologues in public databases, but the remaining unigenes had no significant matches due to the limited sequence information available and species-specific novel sequences.This is the first description of degenerative disease-associated genes in jellyfish.The findings of this study may also be used in comparative studies of gene expression profiling among different jellyfish species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Bio-pharmaceutical Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Jellyfish contain diverse toxins and other bioactive components. However, large-scale identification of novel toxins and bioactive components from jellyfish has been hampered by the low efficiency of traditional isolation and purification methods.

Results: We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of the tentacle tissue of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A total of 51,304,108 reads were obtained and assembled into 50,536 unigenes. Of these, 21,357 unigenes had homologues in public databases, but the remaining unigenes had no significant matches due to the limited sequence information available and species-specific novel sequences. Functional annotation of the unigenes also revealed general gene expression profile characteristics in the tentacle of C. capillata. A primary goal of this study was to identify putative toxin transcripts. As expected, we screened many transcripts encoding proteins similar to several well-known toxin families including phospholipases, metalloproteases, serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors. In addition, some transcripts also resembled molecules with potential toxic activities, including cnidarian CfTX-like toxins with hemolytic activity, plancitoxin-1, venom toxin-like peptide-6, histamine-releasing factor, neprilysin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiotensin-converting enzyme-like and endothelin-converting enzyme 1-like proteins. Most of these molecules have not been previously reported in jellyfish. Interestingly, we also characterized a number of transcripts with similarities to proteins relevant to several degenerative diseases, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. This is the first description of degenerative disease-associated genes in jellyfish.

Conclusion: We obtained a well-categorized and annotated transcriptome of C. capillata tentacle that will be an important and valuable resource for further understanding of jellyfish at the molecular level and information on the underlying molecular mechanisms of jellyfish stinging. The findings of this study may also be used in comparative studies of gene expression profiling among different jellyfish species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Categorization of unigenes into KEGG biochemical pathways.A total of 13,663 unigenes were assigned to 241 KEGG pathways belonging to six categories. (A) The percentage of the pathway amount in each category is shown. (B) The ten largest groups with KEGG database annotation. The x-axis indicates the number of annotated unigenes.
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pone.0142680.g002: Categorization of unigenes into KEGG biochemical pathways.A total of 13,663 unigenes were assigned to 241 KEGG pathways belonging to six categories. (A) The percentage of the pathway amount in each category is shown. (B) The ten largest groups with KEGG database annotation. The x-axis indicates the number of annotated unigenes.

Mentions: To identify the active metabolic pathways in the tentacle of C. capillata, the annotated unigenes were mapped to KEGG pathways. A total of 13,663 unigenes were assigned to 241 KEGG pathways consisting of the categories of “metabolism” (86 pathways), “genetic information processing” (21 pathways), “environmental information processing” (17 pathways), “cellular processes” (14 pathways), “organismal systems” (52 pathways) and “human diseases” (51 pathways) (Fig 2A). Among the mapped pathways, “metabolic pathways” contained 1,912 unigenes (13.99%) and was obviously larger than the other groups, such as “pathways in cancer” (513, 3.75%), “focal adhesion” (477, 3.49%), “‘Huntington’s disease” (476, 3.48%) and “regulation of actin cytoskeleton” (420, 3.07%). The top 10 pathways are shown in Fig 2B, and all pathways are summarized in S2 Table.


Global Transcriptome Analysis of the Tentacle of the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata Using Deep Sequencing and Expressed Sequence Tags: Insight into the Toxin- and Degenerative Disease-Related Transcripts.

Liu G, Zhou Y, Liu D, Wang Q, Ruan Z, He Q, Zhang L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Categorization of unigenes into KEGG biochemical pathways.A total of 13,663 unigenes were assigned to 241 KEGG pathways belonging to six categories. (A) The percentage of the pathway amount in each category is shown. (B) The ten largest groups with KEGG database annotation. The x-axis indicates the number of annotated unigenes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4638339&req=5

pone.0142680.g002: Categorization of unigenes into KEGG biochemical pathways.A total of 13,663 unigenes were assigned to 241 KEGG pathways belonging to six categories. (A) The percentage of the pathway amount in each category is shown. (B) The ten largest groups with KEGG database annotation. The x-axis indicates the number of annotated unigenes.
Mentions: To identify the active metabolic pathways in the tentacle of C. capillata, the annotated unigenes were mapped to KEGG pathways. A total of 13,663 unigenes were assigned to 241 KEGG pathways consisting of the categories of “metabolism” (86 pathways), “genetic information processing” (21 pathways), “environmental information processing” (17 pathways), “cellular processes” (14 pathways), “organismal systems” (52 pathways) and “human diseases” (51 pathways) (Fig 2A). Among the mapped pathways, “metabolic pathways” contained 1,912 unigenes (13.99%) and was obviously larger than the other groups, such as “pathways in cancer” (513, 3.75%), “focal adhesion” (477, 3.49%), “‘Huntington’s disease” (476, 3.48%) and “regulation of actin cytoskeleton” (420, 3.07%). The top 10 pathways are shown in Fig 2B, and all pathways are summarized in S2 Table.

Bottom Line: Of these, 21,357 unigenes had homologues in public databases, but the remaining unigenes had no significant matches due to the limited sequence information available and species-specific novel sequences.This is the first description of degenerative disease-associated genes in jellyfish.The findings of this study may also be used in comparative studies of gene expression profiling among different jellyfish species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Bio-pharmaceutical Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Jellyfish contain diverse toxins and other bioactive components. However, large-scale identification of novel toxins and bioactive components from jellyfish has been hampered by the low efficiency of traditional isolation and purification methods.

Results: We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of the tentacle tissue of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A total of 51,304,108 reads were obtained and assembled into 50,536 unigenes. Of these, 21,357 unigenes had homologues in public databases, but the remaining unigenes had no significant matches due to the limited sequence information available and species-specific novel sequences. Functional annotation of the unigenes also revealed general gene expression profile characteristics in the tentacle of C. capillata. A primary goal of this study was to identify putative toxin transcripts. As expected, we screened many transcripts encoding proteins similar to several well-known toxin families including phospholipases, metalloproteases, serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors. In addition, some transcripts also resembled molecules with potential toxic activities, including cnidarian CfTX-like toxins with hemolytic activity, plancitoxin-1, venom toxin-like peptide-6, histamine-releasing factor, neprilysin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiotensin-converting enzyme-like and endothelin-converting enzyme 1-like proteins. Most of these molecules have not been previously reported in jellyfish. Interestingly, we also characterized a number of transcripts with similarities to proteins relevant to several degenerative diseases, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. This is the first description of degenerative disease-associated genes in jellyfish.

Conclusion: We obtained a well-categorized and annotated transcriptome of C. capillata tentacle that will be an important and valuable resource for further understanding of jellyfish at the molecular level and information on the underlying molecular mechanisms of jellyfish stinging. The findings of this study may also be used in comparative studies of gene expression profiling among different jellyfish species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus