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The combined effect of clothianidin and environmental stress on the behavioral and reproductive function in male mice.

Hirano T, Yanai S, Omotehara T, Hashimoto R, Umemura Y, Kubota N, Minami K, Nagahara D, Matsuo E, Aihara Y, Shinohara R, Furuyashiki T, Mantani Y, Yokoyama T, Kitagawa H, Hoshi N - J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: Mammal nAChRs appear to have a certain affinity for neonicotinoids with lower levels than those of insects; there is thus rising concern about unpredictable adverse effects of neonicotinoids on vertebrates.We hypothesized that the effects of neonicotinoids would be enhanced under a chronic stressed condition, which is known to alter the expression of targets of neonicotinoids, i.e., neuronal nAChRs.The present study demonstrates that the behavioral and reproductive effects of CTD become more serious in combination with environmental stress, which may reflect our actual situation of multiple exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Morphology, Department of Animal Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Neonicotinoids, some of the most widely used pesticides in the world, act as agonists to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects, resulting in death from abnormal excitability. Neonicotinoids unexpectedly became a major topic as a compelling cause of honeybee colony collapse disorder, which is damaging crop production that requires pollination worldwide. Mammal nAChRs appear to have a certain affinity for neonicotinoids with lower levels than those of insects; there is thus rising concern about unpredictable adverse effects of neonicotinoids on vertebrates. We hypothesized that the effects of neonicotinoids would be enhanced under a chronic stressed condition, which is known to alter the expression of targets of neonicotinoids, i.e., neuronal nAChRs. We performed immunohistochemical and behavioral analyses in male mice actively administered a neonicotinoid, clothianidin (CTD; 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day), for 4 weeks under an unpredictable chronic stress procedure. Vacuolated seminiferous epithelia and a decrease in the immunoreactivity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 were observed in the testes of the CTD+stress mice. In an open field test, although the locomotor activities were not affected, the anxiety-like behaviors of the mice were elevated by both CTD and stress. The present study demonstrates that the behavioral and reproductive effects of CTD become more serious in combination with environmental stress, which may reflect our actual situation of multiple exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of combined exposure on the daily gel intake (A), body weights (B) and testisweights (C) in the non-stressed (open column) and stressed groups (closed column). Thetwo-way ANOVA showed significant main effects for the CTD and stress(P<0.01), but the interaction effects were not significant ingel intake and body weights. (A) CTD dose-dependently inhibited the gel intake, andthe inhibition was significant in all CTD-administration groups compared to the CTD-0groups. The stress procedure significantly inhibited the gel intake in eachCTD-administration group. (B) The body weights of the CTD-250 stress and non-stressedgroups were significantly lower than those of the other dose groups, in addition tothe significant difference between the CTD-0 and CTD-10 groups. The post hoc analysesalso revealed that there were significant differences between the CTD-0 and CTD-250stress and non-stressed groups. (C) The two-way ANOVA showed a significant main effectfor stress (P<0.01), but the interaction effect was notsignificant in the absolute weights of testes. The stress procedure significantlysuppressed the absolute testes weights in all stress groups, except the CTD-10 group.Values are mean ± SD (n=5 mice each). *P<0.05,**P<0.01.
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fig_001: Effects of combined exposure on the daily gel intake (A), body weights (B) and testisweights (C) in the non-stressed (open column) and stressed groups (closed column). Thetwo-way ANOVA showed significant main effects for the CTD and stress(P<0.01), but the interaction effects were not significant ingel intake and body weights. (A) CTD dose-dependently inhibited the gel intake, andthe inhibition was significant in all CTD-administration groups compared to the CTD-0groups. The stress procedure significantly inhibited the gel intake in eachCTD-administration group. (B) The body weights of the CTD-250 stress and non-stressedgroups were significantly lower than those of the other dose groups, in addition tothe significant difference between the CTD-0 and CTD-10 groups. The post hoc analysesalso revealed that there were significant differences between the CTD-0 and CTD-250stress and non-stressed groups. (C) The two-way ANOVA showed a significant main effectfor stress (P<0.01), but the interaction effect was notsignificant in the absolute weights of testes. The stress procedure significantlysuppressed the absolute testes weights in all stress groups, except the CTD-10 group.Values are mean ± SD (n=5 mice each). *P<0.05,**P<0.01.

Mentions: Gel intake, body and testis weights: The daily gel consumption, bodyweights and testes weights are shown in Fig. 1Fig. 1.


The combined effect of clothianidin and environmental stress on the behavioral and reproductive function in male mice.

Hirano T, Yanai S, Omotehara T, Hashimoto R, Umemura Y, Kubota N, Minami K, Nagahara D, Matsuo E, Aihara Y, Shinohara R, Furuyashiki T, Mantani Y, Yokoyama T, Kitagawa H, Hoshi N - J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2015)

Effects of combined exposure on the daily gel intake (A), body weights (B) and testisweights (C) in the non-stressed (open column) and stressed groups (closed column). Thetwo-way ANOVA showed significant main effects for the CTD and stress(P<0.01), but the interaction effects were not significant ingel intake and body weights. (A) CTD dose-dependently inhibited the gel intake, andthe inhibition was significant in all CTD-administration groups compared to the CTD-0groups. The stress procedure significantly inhibited the gel intake in eachCTD-administration group. (B) The body weights of the CTD-250 stress and non-stressedgroups were significantly lower than those of the other dose groups, in addition tothe significant difference between the CTD-0 and CTD-10 groups. The post hoc analysesalso revealed that there were significant differences between the CTD-0 and CTD-250stress and non-stressed groups. (C) The two-way ANOVA showed a significant main effectfor stress (P<0.01), but the interaction effect was notsignificant in the absolute weights of testes. The stress procedure significantlysuppressed the absolute testes weights in all stress groups, except the CTD-10 group.Values are mean ± SD (n=5 mice each). *P<0.05,**P<0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4638285&req=5

fig_001: Effects of combined exposure on the daily gel intake (A), body weights (B) and testisweights (C) in the non-stressed (open column) and stressed groups (closed column). Thetwo-way ANOVA showed significant main effects for the CTD and stress(P<0.01), but the interaction effects were not significant ingel intake and body weights. (A) CTD dose-dependently inhibited the gel intake, andthe inhibition was significant in all CTD-administration groups compared to the CTD-0groups. The stress procedure significantly inhibited the gel intake in eachCTD-administration group. (B) The body weights of the CTD-250 stress and non-stressedgroups were significantly lower than those of the other dose groups, in addition tothe significant difference between the CTD-0 and CTD-10 groups. The post hoc analysesalso revealed that there were significant differences between the CTD-0 and CTD-250stress and non-stressed groups. (C) The two-way ANOVA showed a significant main effectfor stress (P<0.01), but the interaction effect was notsignificant in the absolute weights of testes. The stress procedure significantlysuppressed the absolute testes weights in all stress groups, except the CTD-10 group.Values are mean ± SD (n=5 mice each). *P<0.05,**P<0.01.
Mentions: Gel intake, body and testis weights: The daily gel consumption, bodyweights and testes weights are shown in Fig. 1Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: Mammal nAChRs appear to have a certain affinity for neonicotinoids with lower levels than those of insects; there is thus rising concern about unpredictable adverse effects of neonicotinoids on vertebrates.We hypothesized that the effects of neonicotinoids would be enhanced under a chronic stressed condition, which is known to alter the expression of targets of neonicotinoids, i.e., neuronal nAChRs.The present study demonstrates that the behavioral and reproductive effects of CTD become more serious in combination with environmental stress, which may reflect our actual situation of multiple exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Morphology, Department of Animal Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Neonicotinoids, some of the most widely used pesticides in the world, act as agonists to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects, resulting in death from abnormal excitability. Neonicotinoids unexpectedly became a major topic as a compelling cause of honeybee colony collapse disorder, which is damaging crop production that requires pollination worldwide. Mammal nAChRs appear to have a certain affinity for neonicotinoids with lower levels than those of insects; there is thus rising concern about unpredictable adverse effects of neonicotinoids on vertebrates. We hypothesized that the effects of neonicotinoids would be enhanced under a chronic stressed condition, which is known to alter the expression of targets of neonicotinoids, i.e., neuronal nAChRs. We performed immunohistochemical and behavioral analyses in male mice actively administered a neonicotinoid, clothianidin (CTD; 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day), for 4 weeks under an unpredictable chronic stress procedure. Vacuolated seminiferous epithelia and a decrease in the immunoreactivity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 were observed in the testes of the CTD+stress mice. In an open field test, although the locomotor activities were not affected, the anxiety-like behaviors of the mice were elevated by both CTD and stress. The present study demonstrates that the behavioral and reproductive effects of CTD become more serious in combination with environmental stress, which may reflect our actual situation of multiple exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus