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T Helper Lymphocyte Subsets and Plasticity in Autoimmunity and Cancer: An Overview.

Ivanova EA, Orekhov AN - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The spectrum of such populations, which was initially limited to Th1 and Th2 subsets, is currently broadened to include Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as a number of less studied subtypes, such as Tfh, Th9, and Th22.Although these subsets appear to be relatively stable, certain plasticity exists that allows for transition between the subsets and formation of hybrid transition forms.This provides the immune system flexibility needed for adequate response to pathogens but, at the same time, can play a role in the pathogenic processes in cases of deregulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Growth and Regeneration, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
In response to cytokine signalling and other factors, CD4-positive T lymphocytes differentiate into distinct populations that are characterized by the production of certain cytokines and are controlled by different master transcription factors. The spectrum of such populations, which was initially limited to Th1 and Th2 subsets, is currently broadened to include Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as a number of less studied subtypes, such as Tfh, Th9, and Th22. Although these subsets appear to be relatively stable, certain plasticity exists that allows for transition between the subsets and formation of hybrid transition forms. This provides the immune system flexibility needed for adequate response to pathogens but, at the same time, can play a role in the pathogenic processes in cases of deregulation. In this review, we will discuss the properties of T lymphocyte subsets and their plasticity, as well as its implications for cancer and autoimmune diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simplified scheme of T cell differentiation pathways and plasticity (dashed arrows). Secreted cytokines are listed in red. IL: interleukin; DC: dendritic cells; GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IFN-γ: interferon gamma.
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fig1: Simplified scheme of T cell differentiation pathways and plasticity (dashed arrows). Secreted cytokines are listed in red. IL: interleukin; DC: dendritic cells; GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IFN-γ: interferon gamma.

Mentions: In the recent years, it became evident that more functional subsets of T helper cells can be induced by various stimuli in vivo and in vitro. IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells differentiated in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and certain interleukins were recognized as a distinct subset of Th17 cells [4]. Another subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes are the regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 [5]. Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells have been proposed as a distinct lineage of T helper cells that resides in follicles and assists B cells to generate antibodies [6, 7]. Other subsets of T lymphocytes have been identified based on the production of different cytokines, such as Th9 and Th22 (expressing IL-9 and IL-22, resp.) [8–10]. Detailed study of these subsets became a subject of current research, and the recent findings on Th9 and Th22 cells have been summarized in excellent reviews [11, 12]. A simplified scheme of T lymphocyte subsets is presented in Figure 1.


T Helper Lymphocyte Subsets and Plasticity in Autoimmunity and Cancer: An Overview.

Ivanova EA, Orekhov AN - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Simplified scheme of T cell differentiation pathways and plasticity (dashed arrows). Secreted cytokines are listed in red. IL: interleukin; DC: dendritic cells; GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IFN-γ: interferon gamma.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4637008&req=5

fig1: Simplified scheme of T cell differentiation pathways and plasticity (dashed arrows). Secreted cytokines are listed in red. IL: interleukin; DC: dendritic cells; GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IFN-γ: interferon gamma.
Mentions: In the recent years, it became evident that more functional subsets of T helper cells can be induced by various stimuli in vivo and in vitro. IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells differentiated in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and certain interleukins were recognized as a distinct subset of Th17 cells [4]. Another subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes are the regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 [5]. Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells have been proposed as a distinct lineage of T helper cells that resides in follicles and assists B cells to generate antibodies [6, 7]. Other subsets of T lymphocytes have been identified based on the production of different cytokines, such as Th9 and Th22 (expressing IL-9 and IL-22, resp.) [8–10]. Detailed study of these subsets became a subject of current research, and the recent findings on Th9 and Th22 cells have been summarized in excellent reviews [11, 12]. A simplified scheme of T lymphocyte subsets is presented in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: The spectrum of such populations, which was initially limited to Th1 and Th2 subsets, is currently broadened to include Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as a number of less studied subtypes, such as Tfh, Th9, and Th22.Although these subsets appear to be relatively stable, certain plasticity exists that allows for transition between the subsets and formation of hybrid transition forms.This provides the immune system flexibility needed for adequate response to pathogens but, at the same time, can play a role in the pathogenic processes in cases of deregulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Growth and Regeneration, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
In response to cytokine signalling and other factors, CD4-positive T lymphocytes differentiate into distinct populations that are characterized by the production of certain cytokines and are controlled by different master transcription factors. The spectrum of such populations, which was initially limited to Th1 and Th2 subsets, is currently broadened to include Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as a number of less studied subtypes, such as Tfh, Th9, and Th22. Although these subsets appear to be relatively stable, certain plasticity exists that allows for transition between the subsets and formation of hybrid transition forms. This provides the immune system flexibility needed for adequate response to pathogens but, at the same time, can play a role in the pathogenic processes in cases of deregulation. In this review, we will discuss the properties of T lymphocyte subsets and their plasticity, as well as its implications for cancer and autoimmune diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus