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Removal of concentrated sulfamethazine by acclimatized aerobic sludge and possible metabolic products.

Yang N, Wan J, Zhao S, Wang Y - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: The Monod equation applied to simulate SMZ biodegradation had a good coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.99).Furthermore, the results of HPLC demonstrated that the SMZ was not completely removed by the acclimatized activated sludge.From the analysis of LC-MS, 4 intermediates of SMZ biodegradation were identified: Sulfanilic Acid, 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl-2 pyrimidin) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine) benzene sulfonamide, and N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(3-dimethyl-4-N sodium benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou , China.

ABSTRACT
This article examined the biological removal of high concentrated sulfamethazine (SMZ) antibiotics by the acclimatized activated sludge in lab-scale SBRs system. The removal of SMZ was characterized by a quick adsorption and a slow process of biodegradation. The adsorption capacity of activated sludge for SMZ was 44 and 47 µg SMZ/g SS, respectively, with the initial SMZ concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/L. The adsorption process fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In a series of batch studies, with the increase of initial SMZ concentration that were 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/L, 56.0%, 51.3%, 42.2%, 29.5%, 25.0% and 20.8% of influent SMZ were biodegraded within 24 h of biological reaction, respectively. The Monod equation applied to simulate SMZ biodegradation had a good coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.99). Furthermore, the results of HPLC demonstrated that the SMZ was not completely removed by the acclimatized activated sludge. From the analysis of LC-MS, 4 intermediates of SMZ biodegradation were identified: Sulfanilic Acid, 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl-2 pyrimidin) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine) benzene sulfonamide, and N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(3-dimethyl-4-N sodium benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide.

No MeSH data available.


Biodegradation of SMZ by acclimatized activated sludge at different initial concentrations.(A) Residual SMZ during 24 h of reaction and (B) bio-degraded SMZ after 24 h of reaction.
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fig-2: Biodegradation of SMZ by acclimatized activated sludge at different initial concentrations.(A) Residual SMZ during 24 h of reaction and (B) bio-degraded SMZ after 24 h of reaction.

Mentions: The results show that the SMZ adsorption by activated sludge is believed as the first and rapid step (Fig. 1A) and the soluble SMZ is biologically removed via biodegradation during 24 h of reaction after 1 h of the adsorption step. The profiles of SMZ concentrations over time during 24 h of batch test are presented in Fig. 2. The concentration of SMZ in supernatant is measured as function of time. The SMZ removal rates are 56.0%, 51.3%, 42.2%, 29.5%, 25.0% and 20.8% when the initial SMZ concentrations are 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/L, respectively. The result shows an existence of a lag phase before the onset of antibiotics biodegradation, this is corresponding to the previous studies (Plosz, Leknes & Thomas, 2010; Yang et al., 2011), it can be explained that the biodegradation starts when sulfonamides have fully established sorption equilibrium with the activated sludge; or the micro-organisms prefer to utilize readily biodegradable substrates before the degradation of the antibiotics. And this may be why a lag phase appeared in this study.


Removal of concentrated sulfamethazine by acclimatized aerobic sludge and possible metabolic products.

Yang N, Wan J, Zhao S, Wang Y - PeerJ (2015)

Biodegradation of SMZ by acclimatized activated sludge at different initial concentrations.(A) Residual SMZ during 24 h of reaction and (B) bio-degraded SMZ after 24 h of reaction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636402&req=5

fig-2: Biodegradation of SMZ by acclimatized activated sludge at different initial concentrations.(A) Residual SMZ during 24 h of reaction and (B) bio-degraded SMZ after 24 h of reaction.
Mentions: The results show that the SMZ adsorption by activated sludge is believed as the first and rapid step (Fig. 1A) and the soluble SMZ is biologically removed via biodegradation during 24 h of reaction after 1 h of the adsorption step. The profiles of SMZ concentrations over time during 24 h of batch test are presented in Fig. 2. The concentration of SMZ in supernatant is measured as function of time. The SMZ removal rates are 56.0%, 51.3%, 42.2%, 29.5%, 25.0% and 20.8% when the initial SMZ concentrations are 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/L, respectively. The result shows an existence of a lag phase before the onset of antibiotics biodegradation, this is corresponding to the previous studies (Plosz, Leknes & Thomas, 2010; Yang et al., 2011), it can be explained that the biodegradation starts when sulfonamides have fully established sorption equilibrium with the activated sludge; or the micro-organisms prefer to utilize readily biodegradable substrates before the degradation of the antibiotics. And this may be why a lag phase appeared in this study.

Bottom Line: The Monod equation applied to simulate SMZ biodegradation had a good coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.99).Furthermore, the results of HPLC demonstrated that the SMZ was not completely removed by the acclimatized activated sludge.From the analysis of LC-MS, 4 intermediates of SMZ biodegradation were identified: Sulfanilic Acid, 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl-2 pyrimidin) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine) benzene sulfonamide, and N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(3-dimethyl-4-N sodium benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou , China.

ABSTRACT
This article examined the biological removal of high concentrated sulfamethazine (SMZ) antibiotics by the acclimatized activated sludge in lab-scale SBRs system. The removal of SMZ was characterized by a quick adsorption and a slow process of biodegradation. The adsorption capacity of activated sludge for SMZ was 44 and 47 µg SMZ/g SS, respectively, with the initial SMZ concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/L. The adsorption process fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In a series of batch studies, with the increase of initial SMZ concentration that were 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/L, 56.0%, 51.3%, 42.2%, 29.5%, 25.0% and 20.8% of influent SMZ were biodegraded within 24 h of biological reaction, respectively. The Monod equation applied to simulate SMZ biodegradation had a good coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.99). Furthermore, the results of HPLC demonstrated that the SMZ was not completely removed by the acclimatized activated sludge. From the analysis of LC-MS, 4 intermediates of SMZ biodegradation were identified: Sulfanilic Acid, 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl-2 pyrimidin) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine) benzene sulfonamide, and N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(3-dimethyl-4-N sodium benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide.

No MeSH data available.