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Priming Gestures with Sounds.

Lemaitre G, Heller LM, Navolio N, Zúñiga-Peñaranda N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Two results were found.First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds.Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences/Department of Psychology/Auditory Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge.

No MeSH data available.


Relative reaction times in Experiment One (lifting a finger to initiate a high-pitched or a low-pitched tone)—with Group One (left hand high tone, top panel) and Group Two (left hand low tone, lower panel).The solid box represents the interquartile (IQ) range of the distributions of RTs. The dashed lines represent the interquartile range plus or minus 1.5 IQ. Circles represent data points outside this range (i.e. outliers). The horizontal lines represent the median and the losanges the means of the distributions.
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pone.0141791.g002: Relative reaction times in Experiment One (lifting a finger to initiate a high-pitched or a low-pitched tone)—with Group One (left hand high tone, top panel) and Group Two (left hand low tone, lower panel).The solid box represents the interquartile (IQ) range of the distributions of RTs. The dashed lines represent the interquartile range plus or minus 1.5 IQ. Circles represent data points outside this range (i.e. outliers). The horizontal lines represent the median and the losanges the means of the distributions.

Mentions: Reaction times are represented in Fig 2. The main effect of congruency was significant (F(1,35) = 38.75, p<.0001, generalized η2 = 0.25 [53]), and did not interact with the response gestures (F(1,35) = 0.05, p = 0.83), nor with the groups (F(1,35) = 0.33, p = 0.58). Across groups and gestures, relative RTs were 23.0 ms smaller for congruent primes than incongruent primes. Overall, relative RTs were 28.1 ms shorter in Group 2 than in Group One, (F(1,35) = 35.90, p = <.0001, η2 = 0.346). There was a significant difference between the two response gestures (F(1,35) = 33.70, p<.01, η2 = 0.087) but the effect of the gestures did not interact with the groups (F(1,35) = 0.24, p = 0.63). Across groups, participants responded 12.2 ms faster with the left than the right gesture. The three-way interaction between congruence, gesture, and group was significant (F(1,35) = 13.5, p<.001, η2 = 0.032), though much smaller in size than the other effects. This interaction was driven by a difference of priming size between the two gestures in each group. In Group One, the difference between congruent and incongruent primes was larger for the left gesture (31.8 ms) than for the right gesture (18.2 ms). In contrast, in Group Two, priming size was smaller for left gesture (13.2 ms) than for right gesture (28.4 ms). In other words, priming was always smaller for the gesture that was associated with the low-pitched response tone. Although the tones were played at the same level in dB, they had different frequencies, and thus there probably were slight differences in loudness between the two priming sounds [54], which may have affected the size of the the priming effect.


Priming Gestures with Sounds.

Lemaitre G, Heller LM, Navolio N, Zúñiga-Peñaranda N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Relative reaction times in Experiment One (lifting a finger to initiate a high-pitched or a low-pitched tone)—with Group One (left hand high tone, top panel) and Group Two (left hand low tone, lower panel).The solid box represents the interquartile (IQ) range of the distributions of RTs. The dashed lines represent the interquartile range plus or minus 1.5 IQ. Circles represent data points outside this range (i.e. outliers). The horizontal lines represent the median and the losanges the means of the distributions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636392&req=5

pone.0141791.g002: Relative reaction times in Experiment One (lifting a finger to initiate a high-pitched or a low-pitched tone)—with Group One (left hand high tone, top panel) and Group Two (left hand low tone, lower panel).The solid box represents the interquartile (IQ) range of the distributions of RTs. The dashed lines represent the interquartile range plus or minus 1.5 IQ. Circles represent data points outside this range (i.e. outliers). The horizontal lines represent the median and the losanges the means of the distributions.
Mentions: Reaction times are represented in Fig 2. The main effect of congruency was significant (F(1,35) = 38.75, p<.0001, generalized η2 = 0.25 [53]), and did not interact with the response gestures (F(1,35) = 0.05, p = 0.83), nor with the groups (F(1,35) = 0.33, p = 0.58). Across groups and gestures, relative RTs were 23.0 ms smaller for congruent primes than incongruent primes. Overall, relative RTs were 28.1 ms shorter in Group 2 than in Group One, (F(1,35) = 35.90, p = <.0001, η2 = 0.346). There was a significant difference between the two response gestures (F(1,35) = 33.70, p<.01, η2 = 0.087) but the effect of the gestures did not interact with the groups (F(1,35) = 0.24, p = 0.63). Across groups, participants responded 12.2 ms faster with the left than the right gesture. The three-way interaction between congruence, gesture, and group was significant (F(1,35) = 13.5, p<.001, η2 = 0.032), though much smaller in size than the other effects. This interaction was driven by a difference of priming size between the two gestures in each group. In Group One, the difference between congruent and incongruent primes was larger for the left gesture (31.8 ms) than for the right gesture (18.2 ms). In contrast, in Group Two, priming size was smaller for left gesture (13.2 ms) than for right gesture (28.4 ms). In other words, priming was always smaller for the gesture that was associated with the low-pitched response tone. Although the tones were played at the same level in dB, they had different frequencies, and thus there probably were slight differences in loudness between the two priming sounds [54], which may have affected the size of the the priming effect.

Bottom Line: Two results were found.First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds.Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences/Department of Psychology/Auditory Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge.

No MeSH data available.